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The amount of heat required to melt one gram of solid at its melting point with no change in temperature. Usually expressed in J/g. The molar heat of fusion is the amount of heat required to melt one mole of a solid at its melting point with no change in temperature and is usually expressed in kJ/mol.

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Molecular Formula

Formula that indicates the actual number of atoms present in a molecule of a molecular substance.

Hydrate

A solid compound that contains a definite percentage of bound water.

Oxidation

An algebraic increase in the oxidation number, may correspond to a loss of electrons.

Nitrogenases

A class of enzymes found in bacteria within root nodules in some plants, which catalyze reactions by which N2 molecules from the air are converted to ammonia.

 

Free Energy, Gibbs Free Energy

The thermodynamic state function of a system that indicates the amount of energy available for the system to do useful work at constant T and P.

xanthene dye

Any of a group of dyes having a molecular structure related to that of xanthene in which the aromatic (C6H4) groups are the chromophore.

 

Molar Solubility

Number of moles of a solute that dissolve to produce a litre of saturated solution.

Gamma Ray

High energy electromagnetic radiation. A highly penetrating type of nuclear radiation similar to x-ray radiation, except that it comes from within the nucleus of an atom and has a higher energy. Energywise, very similar to cosmic ray except that cosmic rays originate from outer space.

Line Spectrum

An atomic emission or absorption spectrum.

Buret

A piece of volumetric glassware, usually graduated in 0.1-mL intervals, that is used to deliver solutions to be used in titrations in a quantitative (dropwise) manner.