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The amount of heat that must be removed from one gram of a liquid at its freezing point to freeze it with no change in temperature.

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    The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...

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Amine

Derivatives of ammonia in which one or more hydrogen atoms have been replaced by organic groups.

Standard Electrode Potential

By convention, potential, Eo, of a half-reaction as a reduction relative to the standard hydrogen electrode when all species are present at unit activity.

 

Gel

Colloidal suspension of a solid dispersed in a liquid, a semirigid solid.

London Forces

Very weak and very short-range attractive forces between short-lived temporary (induced) dipoles, also called dispersion Forces.

Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope

The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types.

The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The device is based on a complex process of "tunneling" electrons between the material and the tip of a probe.

Reverse Osmosis

Forcing solvent molecules to flow through a semipermable membrane from a concentated solution into a dilute solution by the application of greater hydrostatic pressure on concentrated side than the osmotic pressure opposing it.

Anode

In a cathode ray tube, the positive electrode. Electrode at which oxidation occurs.

Dubnium

Discovered : at both Berkeley, California, USA, and Dubna, near Moscow, Russia in 1970. Description:A highly radioactive metal which does not occur naturally, and of which only a few atoms have ever been made. It is of research interest only. Origin:The element is named after the Russian town of Dubna.

Homogeneous Equilibria

Equilibria involving only one species in a single phase. For example, all gases, all liquids or all solids.

Percent Composition

The mass percent of each element in a compound.