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The amount of heat that must be removed from one gram of a liquid at its freezing point to freeze it with no change in temperature.

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Ion Product for Water

Equilibrium constant for the ionization of water, Kw = [H3O+][OH-] =1.00 x 10-14 at 25 °C.

yttria

Y2O3: A white, water-insoluble powder, Y2O3, used chiefly in incandescent gas and acetylene mantles.

Electronic Transition

The transfer of an electron from one energy level to another.

Fractional Distillation

The process in which a fractioning column is used in distillation apparatus to separate components of a liquid mixture that have different boiling points.

Heterogeneous Mixture

A mixture that does not have uniform composition and properties throughout.

Particulate Matter

Fine divided solid particles suspended in polluted air.

Saturated Solution

Solution in which no more solute will dissolve.

Covalent Bond

Chemical bond formed by the sharing of one or more electron pairs between two atoms.

Collision Theory

Theory of reaction rates that states that effective collisions between reactant molecules must occur in order for the reaction to occur.

yttrium metal

Any of a subgroup of rare-earth elements, of which the cerium and terbium metals comprise the other two subgroups.

Alkylbenzene

A compound containing an alkyl group bonded to a benzene ring.

Dissociation

In aqueous solution, the process in which a solid ionic compound separates into its ions.

Boron Hydrides

Binary compounds of boron and hydrogen.

Nuclear Reaction

Involves a change in the composition of a nucleus and can evolve or absorb an extraordinarily large amount of energy.

Lewis Acid

Any species that can accept a share in an electron pair.

Functional Group

A group of atoms that represents a potential reaction site in an organic compound.

Hybridization

Mixing a set of atomic orbitals to form a new set of atomic orbitals with the same total electron capacity and with properties and energies intermediate between those of the original unhybridized orbitals.

Cis-

The prefix used to indicate that groups are located on the same side of a bon about which rotation is restricted.

Hydrate

A solid compound that contains a definite percentage of bound water.

Buret

A piece of volumetric glassware, usually graduated in 0.1-mL intervals, that is used to deliver solutions to be used in titrations in a quantitative (dropwise) manner.