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The amount of heat that must be removed from one gram of a liquid at its freezing point to freeze it with no change in temperature.

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  • The most expensive metal in the world

    Do you think the most expensive metal is gold? No! On earth there are more valuable metals. But we need to divide the value of metals that occur in nature, and metals - isotopes, which are obtained in special laboratories. Let’s look at natural metals first.

  • Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...

  • Interesting facts about metals

    Metals have been used by people since ancient times. All the time the process of obtaining them was improved, useful alloys of various metals appeared. Let’s look at interesting facts about metals.

  • Chemistry of the sky

    Chemistry can teach us about the composition of celestial bodies and determine their age.

  • Why do copper products change color, and what is the name of the process?

    Probably, every person wants to know, why over time the copper turns green and becomes bloomed. This is easy to explain: that film is called patina.



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Vapor

A gas formed by boiling or evaporating a liquid.

Alpha Particles

A helium nucleus.

Atmosphere

A unit of pressure, the pressure that will support a column of mercury 760 mm high at 0 °C.

Ketone

Compound in which a carbonyl group is bound to two alkyl or two aryl groups, or to one alkyl and one aryl group.

Equilibrium Constant

A quantity that characterizes the position of equilibrium for a reversible reaction, its magnitude is equal to the mass action expression at equilibrium. K varies with temperature.

Protein Design: Automated protein discovery and synthesis

In this paper I describe (theoretically) the method(s) of automated protein discovery and synthesis.

Voltaic Cells

Electrochemical cells in which spontaneous chemical reactions produce electricity, also called galvanic cells.

 

Electrophoresis

A technique for separation of ions by rate and direction of migration in an electric field.

Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP)

A written program developed and implemented by an employer designating proceedures, equipment, personal protective equipment, and work practices that are capable of protecting employees from the health hazards presented by hazardous chemicals usid in that particular workplace.

Law of Combining Volumes (Gay-Lussac's Law)

At constant temperature and pressure, the volumes of reacting gases (and any gaseous products) can be expressed as ratios of small whole numbers.