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The amount of heat absorbed in the formation of solution that contains one mole of solute, the value is positive if heat is absorbed (endothermic) and negative if heat is released (exothermic).

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Nuclear Reactor

A system in which controlled nuclear fisson reactions generate heat energy on a large scale, which is subsequently converted into electrical energy.

Chemical Equilibrium

A state of dynamic balance in which the rates of forward and reverse reactions are equal, there is no net change in concentrations of reactants or products while a system is at equilibrium.

Ionic Compounds

Compounds containing predominantly ionic bonding.

Cis-Trans Isomerism

A type of geometrical isomerism related to the angles between like ligands.

Bond Energy

The amount of energy necessary to break one mole of bonds of a given kind (in gas phase).The amount of energy necessary to break one mole of bonds in a substance, dissociating the sustance in the gaseous state into atoms of its elements in the gaseous state.

Bronsted-Lowry Acid

A proton donor.

Varieties of garnet minerals

The most famous type of garnet stone is pyrope (flaming). This is the "oldest of garnets", with a dense red color, similar to the grain of an edible garnet. Pyrope has a variety called rhodolite - a stone of dense pink or pink-purple color, which sometimes has the alexandrite effect and is used in elite jewelry.

Quantum Mechanics

Mathematical method of treating particles on the basis of quantum theory, which assumes that energy (of small particles) is not infinitely divisible.

Polar Bond

Covalent bond in which there is an unsymmetrical distribution of electron density.

Equilibrium Constant

A quantity that characterizes the position of equilibrium for a reversible reaction, its magnitude is equal to the mass action expression at equilibrium. K varies with temperature.