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The amount of heat absorbed in the formation of solution that contains one mole of solute, the value is positive if heat is absorbed (endothermic) and negative if heat is released (exothermic).

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A heterogeneous mixture in which solute-like particles do not settle out.

Cathodic Protection

Protection of a metal (making ir a cathode) against corrosion by attaching it to a sacrifical anode of a more easily oxidized metal.

Law of Conservation of Energy

Energy cannot be created or destroyed, it may be changed from one form to another.


The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water from 14.5°C to 15.5°C. 1 calorie = 4.184 joules.


Different forms of the same element in the same physical state.


An organic compound containing a sugar or sugars.

Film badge

A small patch of photographic film worn on clothing to detect and measure accumulated incident ionizing radiation.

Method of Initial Rates

Method of determining the rate-law expression by carrying out a reaction with different initial concentrations and analyzing the resultant changes in initial rates.

Salt Bridge

A U-shaped tube containing electrolyte, which connects two half-cells of a voltaic cell.

How is colored crystal made?

However, not everyone knows that in addition to the traditional transparent, there is still an unusually beautiful and spectacular colored crystal, which is obtained through the addition of various metal oxides into the glass. They give the crystal unusually noble shades of red, purple, blue, green and pink colors.