The amount of heat absorbed in the formation of solution that contains one mole of solute, the value is positive if heat is absorbed (endothermic) and negative if heat is released (exothermic).
- Chemical Safety
People use chemicals every day for a wide array of purposes, which can include work and house hold duties. Many of us fail to realize that we are actually handling potentially deadly chemicals when we simply clean the bathroom or wash the car. This brings to mind the reason why chemical safety is...
- Protein Design: Automated protein discovery and synthesis
In this paper I describe (theoretically) the method(s) of automated protein discovery and synthesis.
- Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope
The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...
- Diamonds Are Forever
Diamonds are still a girl's best friend, right? We love the shiny gems. They are the most popular rocks sold today. But what exactly are they, anyway? Where do they come from? What else are they used for?
- Harmful Chemicals Found In Food
It's getting close to New Years and many people are starting to think about how to lose those extra pounds they managed to gain over the holidays. There are many sorts of diets and fads that have developed over the years from cutting carbs to cutting protein. Everyone has their own opinion as to...
The concept in which two or more equivalent dot formulas for the same arrangement of atoms (resonance structures) are necessary to describe the bonding in a molecule or ion.
Integral number of protons in the nucleus, defines the identity of element.
Diagram that shows equilibrium temperature-pressure relationships for different phases of a substance.
The lowest energy state or most stable state of an atom, molecule or ion.
Molecular orbital resulting from head-on overlap of two atomic orbitals.
Law of Definite Proportions (Law of Constant Composition)
The law stating that a pure substance will always have the same percent by weight. Different samples of a pure compound always contain the same elements in the same proportions by mass.
Oxidation of metals in the presence of air and moisture.
A term used to describe molecules and polyatomic ions that have one atom in the center and four atoms at the corners of a square.
Regular periodic variations of properties of elements with atomic number (and position in the periodic table).
Transition State Theory
Theory of reaction rates that states that reactants pass through high-energy transition states before forming products.
The metal ion and its coordinating ligands but not any uncoordinated counter-ions.
A colorless, crystalline compound, XeF4, prepared by heating a gaseous mixture of fluorine and xenon.
Equilibrium or Chemical Equilibrium
A state of dynamic balance in which the rates of forward and reverse reactions are equal, the state of a system when neither forward or reverse reaction is thermodynamically favored.
A common type of dry cell.
Attractive interactions between polar molecules, that is, between molecules with permanent dipoles.
Hydrolysis of esters in the presence of strong soluable bases.
A positive ion, an atom or group of atoms that has lost one or more electrons.
The degree of polymerization, the average number of monomer units per polymer unit.
An ionization reaction between identical molecules.
Crystal Field Theory
Theory of bonding in transition metal complexes in which ligands and metal ions are treated as point charges, a purely ionic model, ligand point charges represent the crystal (electrical) field perturbing the metal?s d orbitals containing nonbonding electrons.