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Water containing Fe3+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ ions, which forms precipates with soap.

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Band

A series of very closely spaced, nearly continuous molecular orbitals that belong to the crystal as a whole.

Electrophoresis

A technique for separation of ions by rate and direction of migration in an electric field.

Greenhouse Effect

Trapping of heat at the surface of the earth by carbon dioxide and water vapour in the atmosphere.

Dipole

Refers to the separation of charge between two covalently bonded atoms.

Polar Bond

Covalent bond in which there is an unsymmetrical distribution of electron density.

Hybridization

Mixing a set of atomic orbitals to form a new set of atomic orbitals with the same total electron capacity and with properties and energies intermediate between those of the original unhybridized orbitals.

Debye

The unit used to express dipole moments.

Standard Reaction

A reaction in which the numbers of moles of reactants shown in the balanced equation, all in their standard states, are completely converted to the numbers of moles of products shown in the balanced equation, also sall at their standard state.

Ideal Gas Law

The product of pressure and the volume of an ideal gas is directly proportional to the number of moles of the gas and the absolute temperature.

Reactants

Substances consumed in a chemical reaction.