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Water containing Fe3+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ ions, which forms precipates with soap.

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Vapor

A gas formed by boiling or evaporating a liquid.

Antibonding Orbital

A molecular orbital higher in energy than any of the atomic orbitals from which it is derived, lends instability to a molecule or ion when populated with electrons, denoted with a star (*) superscript or symbol.

Displacement Reactions

Reactions in which one element displaces another from a compound.

 

Flux

A substance added to react with the charge, or a product of its reduction, in metallurgy, usually added to lower a melting point.

Salicylaldehyde

An oily, slightly water-soluble liquid, C7H6O2, having an almondlike odor: used chiefly in perfumery and in the synthesis of coumarin.

Polar Bond

Covalent bond in which there is an unsymmetrical distribution of electron density.

Valence Bond Theory

Assumes that covalent bonds are formed when atomic orbitals on different atoms overlap and the electrons are shared.

Crystal Lattice

A pattern of arrangement of particles in a crystal.

Solvent

The dispersing medium of a solution.

Denaturation

A process pertaining to a change in structure of a protein form regular to irregular arrangement of the polypeptide chains.