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Water containing Fe3+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ ions, which forms precipates with soap.

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Ore

A natural deposit containing a mineral of an element to be extracted.

Aufbau ('building up') Principle

Describes the order in which electrons fill orbitals in atoms.

Ionization

In aqueous solution, the process in which a molecular compound reacts with water and forms ions.

Nickel-cadmium cell (Nicad battery)

A dry cell in which the anode is Cd, the cathode is NiO2, and the electrolyte is basic.

Metathesis Reactions

Reactions in which two compounds react to form two new compounds, with no changes in oxidation number. Reactions in which the ions of two compounds exchange partners.

 

Complex Ions

Ions resulting from the formation of coordinate covalent bonds between simple ions and other ions or molecules.

Reducing Agent

The substance that reduces another substance and is oxidized.

Diagonal Similarities

Refers to chemical similarities in the Periodic Table of elements of Period 2 to elements of Period 3 one group to the right, especially evident toward the left of the periodic table.

Electron Affinity

The amount of energy absorbed in the process in which an electron is added to a neutral isolated gaseous atom to form a gaseous ion with a 1- charge, has a negative value if energy is released.

Molecular Geometry

The arrangement of atoms (not lone pairs of electrons) around a central atom of a molecule or polyatomic ion.