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Group VIIA elements: F, Cl, Br, I

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Activation Energy

Amount of energy that must be absorbed by reactants in their ground states to reach the transition state so that a reaction can occur. In other words, activation energy is the minimum energy required for a chemical reaction to occur.

Chemical Periodicity

The variations in properties of elements with their position in the periodic table.

Ionic Geometry

The arrangement of atoms (not lone pairs of electrons) about the central atom of a polyatomic ion.

Strong Field Ligand

Ligand that exerts a strong crystal or ligand electrical field and generally forms low spin complexes with metal ions when possible.

yttrium metal

Any of a subgroup of rare-earth elements, of which the cerium and terbium metals comprise the other two subgroups.

Alcohol

Hydrocarbon derivative containing an --OH group attached to a carbon atom not in an aromatic ring. Alcohols are a class of organic compounds containing the hydroxyl group, OH, attached to a carbon atom.

Enantiomer

One of the two mirror-image forms of an optically active molecule.

Photoelectric Effect

Emission of an electron from the surface of a metal caused by impinging electromagnetic radiation of certain minimum energy, current increases with increasing intensity of radiation.

 

S Orbital

A spherically symmetrical atomic orbital, one per energy level.

Electrolytic Cells

Electrochemical cells in which electrical energy causes nospontaneous redox reactions to occur. An electrochemical cell in which chemical reactions are forced to occur by the application of an outside source of electrical energy.