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Either the oxidation part or the reduction part of a redox reaction.

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Saccharide

An organic compound containing a sugar or sugars.

Kinetic Energy

Energy that matter processes by virtue of its motion.

Effective Nuclear Charge

The nuclear charge experienced by the outermost electrons of an atom, the actual nuclear charge minus the effects of shielding due to inner-shell electrons.
Example: Set of dx2-y2 and dz2 orbitals, those d orbitals within a set with lobes directed along the x-, y-, and z-axes.

Stoichiometry

Description of the quantitative relationships among elements and compounds as they undergo chemical changes.

Hydrogen

Discovered : by Henry Cavendish in 1766.
Isolated in London, UK.
Origin : The name is derived from the Greek ‘hydro genes’, meaning water forming.
Description :A colourless, odourless gas that burns and can form an explosive mixture with air. It is currently manufactured from methane gas, but is also produced by the electrolysis of water and aqueous salts. The gas is used to make such key materials as ammonia, cyclohexane and methanol, which are intermediates in the production of fertilisers, plastics and pharmaceuticals. Some see hydrogen gas as the clean fuel of the future - generated from water and returning to water when it is oxidised. Hydrogen-powered fuel cells are increasingly being seen as pollution-free sources of energy.

Secondary Standard

A solution that has been titrated against a primary standard. A standard solution is a secondary standard.

 

Lewis Acid

Any species that can accept a share in an electron pair.

Hard Water

Water containing Fe3+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ ions, which forms precipates with soap.

Molecular Orbital

An orbit resulting from overlap and mixing of atomic orbitals on different atoms. An MO belongs to the molecule as a whole.

Mass Deficiency

The amount of matter that would be converted into energy if an atom were formed from constituent particles.