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The time required for half of a reactant to be converted into product(s). The time required for half of a given sample to undergo radioactive decay.

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Ionic Bonding

Chemical bonding resulting from the transfer of one or more electrons from one atom or a group of atoms to another.

Half-Reaction

Either the oxidation part or the reduction part of a redox reaction.

Carbonium ion

An orgainic ion carrying a positive charge on a carbon atom.

Fractional Distillation

The process in which a fractioning column is used in distillation apparatus to separate components of a liquid mixture that have different boiling points.

Periodic Table

An arrangement of elements in order of increasing atomic numbers that also emphasizes periodicity.

Dubnium

Discovered : at both Berkeley, California, USA, and Dubna, near Moscow, Russia in 1970. Description:A highly radioactive metal which does not occur naturally, and of which only a few atoms have ever been made. It is of research interest only. Origin:The element is named after the Russian town of Dubna.

Electron

A subatomic particle having a mass of 0.00054858 amu and a charge of 1-.

Law of Definite Proportions (Law of Constant Composition)

The law stating that a pure substance will always have the same percent by weight. Different samples of a pure compound always contain the same elements in the same proportions by mass.

Voltage

Potential difference between two electrodes, a measure of the chemical potential for a redox reaction to occur.

Chain Reaction

A reaction that, once initiated, sustains itself and expands. This is a reaction in which reactive species, such as radicals, are produced in more than one step. These reactive species, radicals, propagate the chain reaction.