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The time required for half of a reactant to be converted into product(s). The time required for half of a given sample to undergo radioactive decay.

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Primary Voltaic Cells

Voltaic cells that cannot be recharged, no further chemical reaction is possible once the reactants are consumed.

Degenerate

Of the same energy.

Miscibility

The ability of one liquid to mix with (dissolve in) another liquid.

Film badge

A small patch of photographic film worn on clothing to detect and measure accumulated incident ionizing radiation.

Precipitate

An insoluble solid formed by mixing in solution the constituent ions of a slightly soluble solution.

Law of Conservation of Matter

There is no detectable change in the quantity of matter during an ordinary chemical reaction.

Aufbau ('building up') Principle

Describes the order in which electrons fill orbitals in atoms.

Boiling Point Elevation

The increase in the boiling point of a solvent caused by the dissolution of a nonvolatile solute.

xylidine

Any of six isomeric compounds that have the formula C8H11N, are derivatives of xylene, and resemble aniline: used in dye manufacture.

Breeder Reactor

A nuclear reactor that produces more fissionable nuclear fuel than it consumes.