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The time required for half of a reactant to be converted into product(s). The time required for half of a given sample to undergo radioactive decay.

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Chain Termination Step

The combination of two radicals, which removes the reactive species that propagate the change reaction.

Third Law of Thermodynamics

The entropy of a hypothetical pure, perfect, crystalline sustance at absolute zero temperature is zero.

Nuclear Fission

The process in which a heavy nucleus splits into nuclei of intermediate masses and one or more protons are emitted.

Amphoterism

The ability to react with both acids and bases.Ability of substance to act as either an acid or a base.

Quantum Mechanics

Mathematical method of treating particles on the basis of quantum theory, which assumes that energy (of small particles) is not infinitely divisible.

Sigma Bonds

Bonds resulting from the head-on overlap of atomic orbitals, in which the region of electron sharing is along and (cylindrically) symmetrical to the imaginary line connecting the bonded atoms.

Ground State

The lowest energy state or most stable state of an atom, molecule or ion.

Neutron

A neutral subatomic particle having a mass of 1.0087 amu.

Peroxide

A compound containing oxygen in the -1 oxidation state. Metal peroxides contain the peroxide ion, O22

Neutralization

The reaction of an acid with a base to form a salt and water. Usually, the reaction of hydrogen ions with hydrogen ions to form water molecules.