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The ability of a substance to become permanently magnetized by exposure to an external magnetic field.

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  • Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...

  • Varieties of garnet minerals

    The most famous type of garnet stone is pyrope (flaming). This is the "oldest of garnets", with a dense red color, similar to the grain of an edible garnet. Pyrope has a variety called rhodolite - a stone of dense pink or pink-purple color, which sometimes has the alexandrite effect and is used in...

  • Diamonds Are Forever

    Diamonds are still a girl's best friend, right? We love the shiny gems. They are the most popular rocks sold today. But what exactly are they, anyway? Where do they come from? What else are they used for?

  • Why do copper products change color, and what is the name of the process?

    Probably, every person wants to know, why over time the copper turns green and becomes bloomed. This is easy to explain: that film is called patina.

  • The most expensive metal in the world

    Do you think the most expensive metal is gold? No! On earth there are more valuable metals. But we need to divide the value of metals that occur in nature, and metals - isotopes, which are obtained in special laboratories. Let’s look at natural metals first.



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Dispersed Phase

The solute-like species in a colloid.

Band

A series of very closely spaced, nearly continuous molecular orbitals that belong to the crystal as a whole.

Aryl Group

Group of atoms remaining after a hydrogen atom is removed from the aromatic system.

Electrodes

Surfaces upon which oxidation and reduction half-reactions, occur in electrochemical cells.

Buffer Solution

Solution that resists change in pH, contains either a weak acid and a soluble ionic salt of the acid or a weak base and a soluble ionic salt of the base.

Autoionization

An ionization reaction between identical molecules.

Supercritical Fluid

A substance at temperature above its critical temperature.

Standard Entropy

The absolute entropy of a substance in its standard state at 298 K.

Fractional Distillation

The process in which a fractioning column is used in distillation apparatus to separate components of a liquid mixture that have different boiling points.

Free Radical

A highly reactive chemical species carrying no charge and having a single unpaired electron in an orbital.