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Amount of energy that holds a crystal together, the energy change when a mole of solid is formed from its constituent molecules or ions (for ionic compounds) in their gaseous state.

The energy charge when one mole of formula units of a crystalline solid is formed from its ions, atoms, or molecules in the gas phase, always negative.

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Allotropic Modifications (Allotropes)

Different forms of the same element in the same physical state.

Saccharide

An organic compound containing a sugar or sugars.

Limiting Reactant

Substance that stoichiometrically limits the amount of product(s) that can be formed.

Dimer

Molecule formed by combination of two smaller (identical) molecules.

Insoluble Compound

A very slightly soluble compound.

Coordination Sphere

The metal ion and its coordinating ligands but not any uncoordinated counter-ions.

Cyclotron

A device for accelerating charged particles along a spiral path.

Electrophile

Positively charged or electron-deficient.

Positron

A Nuclear particle with the mass of an electron but opposite charge.

Solubility Product Principle

The solubility product constant expression for a slightly soluble compound is the product of the concentrations of the constituent ions, each raised to the power that corresponds to the number of ions in one formula unit.