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Amount of energy that holds a crystal together, the energy change when a mole of solid is formed from its constituent molecules or ions (for ionic compounds) in their gaseous state.

The energy charge when one mole of formula units of a crystalline solid is formed from its ions, atoms, or molecules in the gas phase, always negative.

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Critical Pressure

The pressure required to liquefy a gas (vapor) at its critical temperature.

Dynamic Equilibrium

An equilibrium in which processes occur continuously, with no net change. When two (or more) processes occur at the same rate so that no net change occurs.

Nucleus

The very small, very dense, positively charged center of an atom containing protons and neutrons, as well as other subatomic particles.

Anion

A negative ion, an atom or goup of atoms that has gained one or more electrons.

 

Supercooled Liquids

Liquids that, when cooled, apparently solidify but actually continue to flow very slowly under the influence of gravity e.g glass.

Coordination Number

In describing crystals, the number of nearest neighbours of an atom or ion. The number of donor atoms coordinated to a metal.

Acyl Group

Compound derived from a carbonic acid by replacing the --OH group with a halogen (X), usually --Cl, general formula is O R--C--X.

Bronsted-Lowry Acid

A proton donor.

Active Metal

Metal with low ionization energy that loses electrons readily to form cations.

Hydrolysis

The reaction of a substance with water or its ions.