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Amount of energy that holds a crystal together, the energy change when a mole of solid is formed from its constituent molecules or ions (for ionic compounds) in their gaseous state.

The energy charge when one mole of formula units of a crystalline solid is formed from its ions, atoms, or molecules in the gas phase, always negative.

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Nitrogen Cycle

The complex series of reactions by which nitrogen is slowly but continually recycled in the atmosphere, lithosphere and hydrosphere.

 

Capillary

A tube having a very small inside diameter.

Monoprotic Acid

Acid that can form only one hydronium ion per molecule, may be strong or weak. Acid that contains one ionizable hydrogen atom per formula unit.

Sigma Bonds

Bonds resulting from the head-on overlap of atomic orbitals, in which the region of electron sharing is along and (cylindrically) symmetrical to the imaginary line connecting the bonded atoms.

Debye

The unit used to express dipole moments.

Structural Isomers

Compounds that contain the same number of the same kinds of atoms in different geometric arrangements.

Specific Heat

The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of substance one degree Celsius.

Alkali Metals

Metals of Group IA (Na, K, Rb).

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xylidine

Any of six isomeric compounds that have the formula C8H11N, are derivatives of xylene, and resemble aniline: used in dye manufacture.