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Theory of bonding in transition metal complexes in which ligands and metal ions are treated as point charges, a purely ionic model, ligand point charges represent the crystal (electrical) field perturbing the metal?s d orbitals containing nonbonding electrons.

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Kinetic Energy

Energy that matter processes by virtue of its motion.


A process pertaining to a change in structure of a protein form regular to irregular arrangement of the polypeptide chains.

Cell Potential

Potential difference, Ecell, between oxidation and reduction half-cells under nonstandard conditions.


Mass Action Expression

For a reversible reaction, aA + bB cC + dD the product of the concentrations of the products (species on the right), each raised to the power that corresponds to its coefficient in the balanced chemical equation, divided by the product of the concentrations of reactants (species on the left), each raised to the power that corresponds to its coefficient in the balanced chemical equation. At equilibrium the mass action expression is equal to K, at other times it is Q.[C]c[D]d [A]a[B]b = Q, or at equilibrium K.

Lewis Acid

Any species that can accept a share in an electron pair.

Critical Mass

The minimum mass of a particular fissionable nuclide in a given volume required to sustain a nuclear chain reaction.

Critical Pressure

The pressure required to liquefy a gas (vapor) at its critical temperature.


A measure of the intensity of heat, i.e. the hotness or coldness of a sample. or object.


High energy particles or rays emitted during the nuclear decay processes.

Activity of a component of ideal mixture

A dimensionless quantity whose magnitude is: equal to molar concentration in an ideal solution, equal to partial pressure in an ideal gas mixture, and defined as 1 for pure solids or liquids.