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Oxidation of metals in the presence of air and moisture.

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yttrium metal

Any of a subgroup of rare-earth elements, of which the cerium and terbium metals comprise the other two subgroups.

Effective Nuclear Charge

The nuclear charge experienced by the outermost electrons of an atom, the actual nuclear charge minus the effects of shielding due to inner-shell electrons.
Example: Set of dx2-y2 and dz2 orbitals, those d orbitals within a set with lobes directed along the x-, y-, and z-axes.

Control Rods

Rods of materials such as cadmium or boron steel that act as neutron obsorbers (not merely moderaters) used in nuclear reactors to control neutron fluxes and therfore rates of fission.

Ioniztion

The breaking up of a compound into separate ions.

Double Salt

Solid consisting of two co-crystallized salts.

 

Periodic Law

The properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers.

Periodic Table of Elements

An arrangement of elements in order of increasing atomic numbers that also emphasizes periodicity.

Bonding Pair

Pair of electrons involved in a covalent bond.

Pairing

A favourable interaction of two electrons with opposite m , values in the same orbital.

Oxidizing Agent

The substance that oxidizes another substance and is reduced.