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Rods of materials such as cadmium or boron steel that act as neutron obsorbers (not merely moderaters) used in nuclear reactors to control neutron fluxes and therfore rates of fission.

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Geometrical Isomers

Compounds with different arrangements of groups on either side of a bond with restricted rotation, such as a double bond or a single bond in a ring, for example cis-trans isomers of certain alkenes. Stereoisomers that are not mirror images of each other, also known as position isomers.

Alkylbenzene

A compound containing an alkyl group bonded to a benzene ring.

Corrosion

Oxidation of metals in the presence of air and moisture.

Hydrocarbons

Compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen.

Isotopes

Two or more forms of atoms of the same element with different masses, atoms containing the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons.

Combination Reaction

Reaction in which two substances (elements or compounds) combine to form one compound.

Ideal Solution

A solution that obeys Raoult's Law exactly.

Photochemical Smog

A brownish smog occurring in urban areas receiving large amounts of sunlight, caused by photochemical (light-induced) reactions among nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons and other components of polluted air that produce photochemical oxidants.

 

Carcinogen

A substance capable of causing or producing cancer in mammals.

 

Ground State

The lowest energy state or most stable state of an atom, molecule or ion.