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Rods of materials such as cadmium or boron steel that act as neutron obsorbers (not merely moderaters) used in nuclear reactors to control neutron fluxes and therfore rates of fission.

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Aldehyde

Compound in which an alkyl or aryl group and a hydrogen atom are attached to a carbonyl group and a hydrogen atom are attached to a carbonyl group, general formula, O-R-C-H

 

Frequency

The number of repeating corresponding points on a wave that pass a given observation point per unit time.

Dispersed Phase

The solute-like species in a colloid.

Amide

Compound containing the O-C-N group.Compound that can be considered a derivative of ammonia in which one or more hydrogens are replaced by a alkyl or aryl groups.

 

Raoult's Law

The vapor pressure of a solvent in an ideal solution decreases as its mole fraction decreases.

Geiger counter

A gas filled tube which discharges electriaclly when ionizing radiation passes through it.

Lewis Base

Any species that can make available a share in an electron pair.

Activity of a component of ideal mixture

A dimensionless quantity whose magnitude is: equal to molar concentration in an ideal solution, equal to partial pressure in an ideal gas mixture, and defined as 1 for pure solids or liquids.

Conjugated Double Bonds

Double bonds that are separated from each other by one single bond -C=C-C=C-.

Pauli Exclusion Principle

No two electrons in the same atom may have identical sets of four quantum numbers.

ytterbia

Ytterbia is a colorless compound, Yb2O3, used in certain alloys and ceramics. Also known as ytterbium oxide.

Critical Temperature

The temperature above which a gas cannot be liquefied, the temperature above which a substance cannot exhibit distinct gas and liquid phases.

Henry's Law

The pressure of the gas above a solution is proportional to the concentration of the gas in the solution.

Dilution

Process of reducing the concentration of a solute in solution, usually simply by mixing with more solvent.

xanthene dye

Any of a group of dyes having a molecular structure related to that of xanthene in which the aromatic (C6H4) groups are the chromophore.

 

Nonpolar Bond

Covalent bond in which electron density is symmetrically distributed.

Polarization

The buildup of a product of oxidation or a reduction of an electrode, preventing further reaction.

Half-Life

The time required for half of a reactant to be converted into product(s). The time required for half of a given sample to undergo radioactive decay.

Magnetic Quantum Number (mc)

Quantum mechanical solution to a wave equation that designates the particular orbital within a given set (s, p, d, f ) in which a electron resides.

Molar Solubility

Number of moles of a solute that dissolve to produce a litre of saturated solution.