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Rods of materials such as cadmium or boron steel that act as neutron obsorbers (not merely moderaters) used in nuclear reactors to control neutron fluxes and therfore rates of fission.

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Heat of Crystallization

The amount of heat that must be removed from one gram of a liquid at its freezing point to freeze it with no change in temperature.

Emulsifying Agent

A sustance that coats the particles of the dispersed phase and prevents coagulation of colloidal particles, an emulsifier.


A unit of energy in the SI system. One joule is 1 kg. m2/s2 which is also 0.2390 calorie.


A heavy, colorless, chemically inactive, monatomic gaseous element used for filling radio, television, and luminescent tubes. Symbol: Xe, at. wt.: 131.30, at. no.: 54.

Acidic Salt

A salt containing an ionizable hydrogen atom. Acidic salt does not necessarily produce acidic solutions.

Fuel Cells

Voltaic cells in which the reactants (usually gases) are supplied continuously.
A voltaic cell that converts the chemical energy of a fuel and an oxidizing agent directly into electriacl energy on a continuous basis.

Molecular Formula

Formula that indicates the actual number of atoms present in a molecule of a molecular substance.

xylic acid

Any of six colorless, crystalline, isomeric acids having the formula C9H10O2, derived from xylene.

Rate-determining Step

The slowest step in a mechanism, the step that determines the overall rate of reaction.

Bonding Orbital

A molecular orbit lower in energy than any of the atomic orbitals from which it is derived, lends stability to a molecule or ion when populated with electron.