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A device for observing the paths of speeding particiles as vapor molecules condense on them to form foglike tracks.

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Chemical Bonds

The attractive forces that hold atoms together in elements or compounds.

Nitric Acid

HNO3: A strong acid, it is toxic and can cause severe burns. Transparent colorless or yellowish, fuming, suffocating, caustic and corrosive liquid. Nitric acid boiling point is 83C. A 70 percent solution is used in the S.S.E. laboratory for junction depth measurements. Nitric acid is also present in the metal etch solution used for the Aluminum etch procedure.

Spectrochemical Series

Arrangement of ligands in order of increasing ligand field strength.

Osmosis

The process by which solvent molecules pass through a semipermable membrane from a dilute solution into a more concentrated solution.

 

Chemical Change

A change in which one or more new substances are formed.

Effective Nuclear Charge

The nuclear charge experienced by the outermost electrons of an atom, the actual nuclear charge minus the effects of shielding due to inner-shell electrons.
Example: Set of dx2-y2 and dz2 orbitals, those d orbitals within a set with lobes directed along the x-, y-, and z-axes.

Mass Spectrometer

An instrument that measures the charge-to-mass ratio of charged particles.

DP number

The degree of polymerization, the average number of monomer units per polymer unit.

Stoichiometry

Description of the quantitative relationships among elements and compounds as they undergo chemical changes.

Nuclide Symbol

Symbol for an atom A/Z E, in which E is the symbol of an element, Z is its atomic number, and A is its mass number.