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A device for observing the paths of speeding particiles as vapor molecules condense on them to form foglike tracks.

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Law of Partial Pressures (Dalton's Law)

The total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is the sum of the partial pressures of the individual gases.

Isomers

Different substances that have the same formula.

Leveling Effect

Effect by which all acids stronger than the acid that is characteristic of the solvent react with solvent to produce that acid, similar statement applies to bases. The strongest acid (base) that can exist in a given solvent is the acid (base) characteristic of the solvent.

Polarization

The buildup of a product of oxidation or a reduction of an electrode, preventing further reaction.

Osmosis

The process by which solvent molecules pass through a semipermable membrane from a dilute solution into a more concentrated solution.

 

Heat of Solution

The amount of heat absorbed in the formation of solution that contains one mole of solute, the value is positive if heat is absorbed (endothermic) and negative if heat is released (exothermic).

Salt Bridge

A U-shaped tube containing electrolyte, which connects two half-cells of a voltaic cell.

Associated Ions

Short-lived species formed by the collision of dissolved ions of opposite charges.

Molecular Orbital Theory

A theory of chemical bonding based upon the postulated existence of molecular orbitals.

Lone Pair

Pair of electrons residing on one atom and not shared by other atoms, unshared pair.