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A device for observing the paths of speeding particiles as vapor molecules condense on them to form foglike tracks.

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  • Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...

  • Gas of rotten eggs

    If you happen to break a rotten egg, then you know the smell of hydrogen sulfide, because the stench of the spoiled egg depends on of its presence in rotting protein substances.

  • What's In Your Beverage? How to Ensure Quality Control with CO2 Analytical Support

    Calibration standards, performance audits, and the FDA's never-ending safety, labeling, and inspection requirements are just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to dealing with the increasingly stringent quality control standards of the beverage industry. As these quality standards become...

  • Varieties of garnet minerals

    The most famous type of garnet stone is pyrope (flaming). This is the "oldest of garnets", with a dense red color, similar to the grain of an edible garnet. Pyrope has a variety called rhodolite - a stone of dense pink or pink-purple color, which sometimes has the alexandrite effect and is used in...

  • Protein Design: Automated protein discovery and synthesis

    In this paper I describe (theoretically) the method(s) of automated protein discovery and synthesis.



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Binary Acid

A binary compound in which H is bonded to one or more of the more electronegative nonmetals.

Phase Diagram

Diagram that shows equilibrium temperature-pressure relationships for different phases of a substance.

Concentration

Amount of solute per unit volume or mass of solvent or of solution.

yttrium

A rare trivalent metallic element, found in gadolinite and other minerals. Symbol: Y, at. wt.: 88.905, at. no.: 39, sp. gr.: 4.47. Cf."rare-earth element."

Yttrium has a silver-metallic luster and is relatively stable in air unless finely divided. Turnings of the metal, however, ignite in air if their temperature exceeds 400oC. Yttrium oxide is one of the most important compounds of yttrium and accounts for the largest use. It is widely used in making YVO4 europium, and Y2O3 europium phosphors to give the red color in color television tubes.

History of fireworks

There is an assumption that the history of fireworks started in China, about 2000 years ago. It is possible that the Chinese accidentally discovered explosions by burning bamboo canes.

Boiling Point Elevation

The increase in the boiling point of a solvent caused by the dissolution of a nonvolatile solute.

Lone Pair

Pair of electrons residing on one atom and not shared by other atoms, unshared pair.

Thermal Cracking

Decomposition by heating a substance in the presence of a catalyst and in the absence of air.

 

Metal

An element below and to the left of the stepwise division (metalloids) in the upper right corner of the periodic table, about 80% of the known elements are metals.

Polarization

The buildup of a product of oxidation or a reduction of an electrode, preventing further reaction.