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The attractive forces that hold atoms together in elements or compounds.

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Ground State

The lowest energy state or most stable state of an atom, molecule or ion.

Rate of Reaction

Change in the concentration of a reactant or product per unit time.

Atmosphere

A unit of pressure, the pressure that will support a column of mercury 760 mm high at 0 °C.

Dissociation Constant

Equilibrium constant that applies to the dissociation of a comples ion into a simple ion and coordinating species (ligands).

Photon

A packet of light or electromagnetic radiation, also called quantum of light.

 

Heat of Crystallization

The amount of heat that must be removed from one gram of a liquid at its freezing point to freeze it with no change in temperature.

Supersaturated Solution

A solution that contains a higher than saturation concentration of solute, slight disturbance or seeding causes crystallization of excess solute.

Daughter Nuclide

Nuclide that is produced in a nuclear decay.

 

Hydration

Reaction of a substance with water.

Condensed States

The solid and liquid states.

Solvent

The dispersing medium of a solution.

Avogadro's Law

At the same temperature and pressure, equal volumes of all gases contain the same number of molecules.

Homogeneous Equilibria

Equilibria involving only one species in a single phase. For example, all gases, all liquids or all solids.

Strong Electrolyte

A substance that conducts electricity well in a dilute aqueous solution.

 

Bond Energy

The amount of energy necessary to break one mole of bonds of a given kind (in gas phase).The amount of energy necessary to break one mole of bonds in a substance, dissociating the sustance in the gaseous state into atoms of its elements in the gaseous state.

Dermal toxicity

Adverse health effects resulting from skin exposure ot a substance.

Electronegativity

A measure of the relative tendency of an atom to attract electrons to itself when chemically combined with another atom.

Hydrocarbons

Compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen.

Conformations

Structures of a compound that differ by the extent of rotation about a single bond.

Mother Nuclide

Nuclide that undergoes nuclear decay.