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Closed glass tube containing a gas under low pressure, with electrodes near the ends and a luminescent screen at the end near the positive electrode, produces cathode rays when high voltage is applied.

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Heat of Fusion

The amount of heat required to melt one gram of solid at its melting point with no change in temperature. Usually expressed in J/g. The molar heat of fusion is the amount of heat required to melt one mole of a solid at its melting point with no change in temperature and is usually expressed in kJ/mol.

Total Ionic Equation

Equation for a chemical reaction written to show the predominant form of all species in aqueous solution or in contact with water.

Hydration Energy

The energy change accompanying the hydration of a mole of gase and ions.

Effective Molality

The sum of the molalities of all solute particles in a solution.

Dosimeter

A small, calibrated electroscope worn by laboratory personnel and designated to detect and measure incident ionizing radiation or chemical exposure.

Particulate Matter

Fine divided solid particles suspended in polluted air.

Alloying

Mixing of metal with other substances (usually other metals) to modify its properties.

Stoichiometry

Description of the quantitative relationships among elements and compounds as they undergo chemical changes.

Enthalpy

The heat content of a specific amount of substance, defined as E= PV.

Metalloids

Elements with properties intermediate between metals and nonmetals: B, Al, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te, Po, and At.