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Electrode at which reduction occurs in a cathode ray tube, the negative electrode.

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Discovered : at both Berkeley, California, USA, and Dubna, near Moscow, Russia in 1970. Description:A highly radioactive metal which does not occur naturally, and of which only a few atoms have ever been made. It is of research interest only. Origin:The element is named after the Russian town of Dubna.

Continuous Spectrum

Spectrum that contains all wave-lengths in a specified region of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Amorphous Solid

A noncrystalline solid with no well-defined ordered structure.

Periodic Table

An arrangement of elements in order of increasing atomic numbers that also emphasizes periodicity.

Heat of Fusion

The amount of heat required to melt one gram of solid at its melting point with no change in temperature. Usually expressed in J/g. The molar heat of fusion is the amount of heat required to melt one mole of a solid at its melting point with no change in temperature and is usually expressed in kJ/mol.

Electronic Geometry

The geometric arrangement of orbitals containing the shared and unshared electron pairs surrounding the central atom of a molecule or polyatomic ion.


A term used to describe molecules and polyatomic ions that have one atom in center and four atoms at the corners of a tetrahedron.

Spectator Ions

Ions in a solution that do not participate in a chemical reaction.

Law of Conservation of Energy

Energy cannot be created or destroyed, it may be changed from one form to another.


Vaporization of a liquid below its boiling point.