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Ratiation extraneous to an experiment. Usually the low-level natural radiation form cosmic rays and trace radioactive substances present in our environment.

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Mass Number

The sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons in an atom, an integer.

Metalloids

Elements with properties intermediate between metals and nonmetals: B, Al, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te, Po, and At.

Chemical Bonds

The attractive forces that hold atoms together in elements or compounds.

Base

A substance that produces OH (aq) ions in aqueous solution. Strong soluable bases are soluble in water and are completely dissociated. Weak bases ionize only slightly.

Rate-law Expression

Equation relating the rate of a reaction to the concentrations of the reactants and the specific rate of the constant.

Percent Composition

The mass percent of each element in a compound.

Crystalline Solid

A solid characterized by a regular, ordered arrangement of particles.

xenon tetrafluoride

A colorless, crystalline compound, XeF4, prepared by heating a gaseous mixture of fluorine and xenon.

Law of Conservation of Matter and Energy

The total amount of matter and energy available in the universe is fixed.

Gel

Colloidal suspension of a solid dispersed in a liquid, a semirigid solid.

Alums

Hydrated sulfates of the general formula M+M3+(SO4)2.12H2).

Dimer

Molecule formed by combination of two smaller (identical) molecules.

Effective Collisons

Collision between molecules resulting in a reaction, one in which the molecules collide with proper relative orientations and sufficient energy to react.

 

Cyclotron

A device for accelerating charged particles along a spiral path.

Primary Voltaic Cells

Voltaic cells that cannot be recharged, no further chemical reaction is possible once the reactants are consumed.

Electron

A subatomic particle having a mass of 0.00054858 amu and a charge of 1-.

Conduction Band

A partially filled band or a band of vacant energy levels just higher in energy than a filled band, a band within which, or into which, electrons must be promoted to allow electrical conduction to occur in a solid.

Common Ion Effect

Suppression of ionization of a weak electrolyte by the presence in the same solution of a strong electrolyte containing one of the same ions as the weak electrolyte.

Emulsifying Agent

A sustance that coats the particles of the dispersed phase and prevents coagulation of colloidal particles, an emulsifier.

Detergent

A soap-like emulsifer that contains a sulfate, SO3 or a phosphate group instead of a carboxylate group.