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Ratiation extraneous to an experiment. Usually the low-level natural radiation form cosmic rays and trace radioactive substances present in our environment.

Latest Articles

  • Ozone

    We breathe 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, consuming about 25 kg of air every day. It turns out that we practically predetermine our health by the air we breathe.

  • Protein Design: Automated protein discovery and synthesis

    In this paper I describe (theoretically) the method(s) of automated protein discovery and synthesis.

  • Chemical Safety

    People use chemicals every day for a wide array of purposes, which can include work and house hold duties. Many of us fail to realize that we are actually handling potentially deadly chemicals when we simply clean the bathroom or wash the car. This brings to mind the reason why chemical safety is...

  • What's In Your Beverage? How to Ensure Quality Control with CO2 Analytical Support

    Calibration standards, performance audits, and the FDA's never-ending safety, labeling, and inspection requirements are just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to dealing with the increasingly stringent quality control standards of the beverage industry. As these quality standards become...

  • Gas of rotten eggs

    If you happen to break a rotten egg, then you know the smell of hydrogen sulfide, because the stench of the spoiled egg depends on of its presence in rotting protein substances.



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Law of Conservation of Matter and Energy

The total amount of matter and energy available in the universe is fixed.

Evaporization

Vaporization of a liquid below its boiling point.

Nitrogenases

A class of enzymes found in bacteria within root nodules in some plants, which catalyze reactions by which N2 molecules from the air are converted to ammonia.

 

Effective Nuclear Charge

The nuclear charge experienced by the outermost electrons of an atom, the actual nuclear charge minus the effects of shielding due to inner-shell electrons.
Example: Set of dx2-y2 and dz2 orbitals, those d orbitals within a set with lobes directed along the x-, y-, and z-axes.

Critical Pressure

The pressure required to liquefy a gas (vapor) at its critical temperature.

Fluorescence

Absorption of high energy radiation by a substance and subsequent emission of visible light.

Eutrophication

The undesirable overgrowth of vegetation caused by high concentrates of plant nutrients in bodies of water.

Degenerate

Of the same energy.

Hydrogenation

The reaction in which hydrogen adds across a double or triple bond.

Capillary

A tube having a very small inside diameter.