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Ratiation extraneous to an experiment. Usually the low-level natural radiation form cosmic rays and trace radioactive substances present in our environment.

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  • Gas of rotten eggs

    If you happen to break a rotten egg, then you know the smell of hydrogen sulfide, because the stench of the spoiled egg depends on of its presence in rotting protein substances.

  • Use of diamonds

    Diamond is a crystalline modification of pure carbon formed in the deep interior of the Earth, in the upper mantle at depths of more than 80-100 kilometers, at exceptionally high pressure and temperature. It is the most precious stone, the hardest and most wear-resistant mineral, the most...

  • Chemical Safety

    People use chemicals every day for a wide array of purposes, which can include work and house hold duties. Many of us fail to realize that we are actually handling potentially deadly chemicals when we simply clean the bathroom or wash the car. This brings to mind the reason why chemical safety is...

  • Protein Design: Automated protein discovery and synthesis

    In this paper I describe (theoretically) the method(s) of automated protein discovery and synthesis.

  • Creating Malachite egg

    One of the most interesting and obvious chemical experiments is the experiment on the interaction of copper sulfate and calcium carbonate. The latter is contained in the shell of a simple egg, but copper sulphate should be searched in a chemical reagent store. This experience is simple, but...



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Substance

Any kind of matter all specimens of which have the same chemical composition and physical properties.

 

Meniscus

The shape assumed by the surface of a liquid in a cylindrical container.

Net Ionic Equation

Equation that results from canceling spectator ions and eliminating brackets from a total ionic equation.

Inner Orbital Complex

Valence bond designation for a complex in which the metal ion utilizes d orbitals for one shell inside the outermost occupied shell in its hybridization.

K Capture

Absorption of a K shell (n=1) electron by a proton as it is converted to a neutron.

Sublimation

The direct vaporization of a sold by heating without passing through the liquid state.

Activity of a component of ideal mixture

A dimensionless quantity whose magnitude is: equal to molar concentration in an ideal solution, equal to partial pressure in an ideal gas mixture, and defined as 1 for pure solids or liquids.

Ostwald Process

A process for the industrial production of nitrogen oxide and nitric acid from ammonia and oxygen.

Hard Water

Water containing Fe3+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ ions, which forms precipates with soap.

Dimer

Molecule formed by combination of two smaller (identical) molecules.