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An ionization reaction between identical molecules.

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van der Waals' Equation

An equation of state that extends the ideal gas law to real gases by inclusion of two empirically determined parameters, which are different for different gases.

Boiling Point

The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to the applied pressure, also the condensation point

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Effective Collisons

Collision between molecules resulting in a reaction, one in which the molecules collide with proper relative orientations and sufficient energy to react.

 

Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope

The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types.

The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The device is based on a complex process of "tunneling" electrons between the material and the tip of a probe.

Molarity

Number of moles of solute per litre of solution.

Carcinogen

A substance capable of causing or producing cancer in mammals.

 

Nodal Plane

A region in which the probability of finding an electron is zero.

 

Low Spin Complex

Crystal field designation for an inner orbital complex, contains electrons paired t2g orbitals before eg orbitals are occupied in octahedral complexes.

Binding Energy (nuclear binding energy)

The energy equivalent (E = mc^2) of the mass deficiency of an atom.  where: E = is the energy in joules, m is the mass in kilograms, and c is the speed of light in m/s^2