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An ionization reaction between identical molecules.

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Valence Bond Theory

Assumes that covalent bonds are formed when atomic orbitals on different atoms overlap and the electrons are shared.

Associated Ions

Short-lived species formed by the collision of dissolved ions of opposite charges.

Periodic Law

The properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers.

Law of Conservation of Matter and Energy

The total amount of matter and energy available in the universe is fixed.

Electrode Potentials

Potentials, E, of half-reactions as reductions versus the standard hydrogen electrode.

Coordination Isomers

Isomers involving exchanges of ligands between complex cation and complex anion of the same compound.

yield

The quantity of product formed by the interaction of two or more substances, generally expressed as a percentage of the quantity obtained to that theoretically obtainable.

Fossil Fuels

Substances consisting largely of hydrocarbons, derived from decay of organic materials under geological conditions of high pressure and temperature (metamorphism) include coal, petroleum, natural gas, peat and oil shale.  For further information see Fuel Chemistry

Bonding Orbital

A molecular orbit lower in energy than any of the atomic orbitals from which it is derived, lends stability to a molecule or ion when populated with electron.

Dipole-dipole Interactions

Attractive interactions between polar molecules, that is, between molecules with permanent dipoles.

Polymer

A large molecule consisting of chains or rings of linked monomer units, usually characterized by high melting and boiling points.

Chain Reaction

A reaction that, once initiated, sustains itself and expands. This is a reaction in which reactive species, such as radicals, are produced in more than one step. These reactive species, radicals, propagate the chain reaction.

 

Saccharic

of or derived from saccharin or a saccharine substance.

 

Frequency

The number of repeating corresponding points on a wave that pass a given observation point per unit time.

Cis-

The prefix used to indicate that groups are located on the same side of a bon about which rotation is restricted.

Bond Order

Half the numbers of electrons in bonding orbitals minus half the number of electrons in antibonding orbitals. Bond order gives an indication to the stability of a bond. Also defined as the difference between the number of bonding electrons and antibonding electrons divided by two.

Acetic Acid

CA3COOH, clear, colorless liquid, pungent odor. Boiling point 140C, flash point 54C (closed cup), autoignition temperature 38OC.

Salicylate

A salt or ester of salicylic acid.

Reaction Ratio

The relative amounts of reactants and products involved in a reaction, maybe the ratio of moles. millimoles, or masses.

 

Combination Reaction

Reaction in which two substances (elements or compounds) combine to form one compound.