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An oxidizing or reducing agent, who's mass gains (oxidizing agents) or loses (reducing agents) 6.022 x 1023 electrons in a redox reaction.
The mass of an acid or base that furnishes or reacts with 6.022 x 1023 H3O+ or OH- ions.

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Mass Action Expression

For a reversible reaction, aA + bB cC + dD the product of the concentrations of the products (species on the right), each raised to the power that corresponds to its coefficient in the balanced chemical equation, divided by the product of the concentrations of reactants (species on the left), each raised to the power that corresponds to its coefficient in the balanced chemical equation. At equilibrium the mass action expression is equal to K, at other times it is Q.[C]c[D]d [A]a[B]b = Q, or at equilibrium K.

Electron Deficient Compounds

Compounds that contain at least one atom (other than H) that shares fewer than eight electrons.

Coke

An impure form of carbon obtained by destructive distillation of coal or petroleum.

Substance

Any kind of matter all specimens of which have the same chemical composition and physical properties.

 

Chemical Equilibrium

A state of dynamic balance in which the rates of forward and reverse reactions are equal, there is no net change in concentrations of reactants or products while a system is at equilibrium.

Nitrogen Cycle

The complex series of reactions by which nitrogen is slowly but continually recycled in the atmosphere, lithosphere and hydrosphere.

 

Law of Conservation of Matter and Energy

The total amount of matter and energy available in the universe is fixed.

Heat of Crystallization

The amount of heat that must be removed from one gram of a liquid at its freezing point to freeze it with no change in temperature.

Suspension

A heterogeneous mixture in which solute-like particles settle out of solvent-like phase some time after their introduction.

Ion

An atom or a group of atoms that carries an electric charge.

Biodegradability

The ability of a substance to be broken down into simpler substances by bacteria.

 

Emission Spectrum

Spectrum associated with emission of electromagnetic radiation by atoms (or other species) resulting from electronic transitions from higher to lower energy states.

 

Coulometry

The quantitative application of Faraday's Law to the analysis of materials. The current and time are the usual variables measured.

Metalloids

Elements with properties intermediate between metals and nonmetals: B, Al, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te, Po, and At.

Atomic Mass Unit (amu)

One twelfth of a mass of an atom of the carbon-12 isotope, a unit used for stating atomic and formula weights, also called dalton.

Associated Ions

Short-lived species formed by the collision of dissolved ions of opposite charges.

Linkage Isomers

Isomers in which a particular ligand bonds to a metal ion through different donor atoms.

 

Molecule

The smallest particle of an element or compound capable of a stable, independent existence.

Partial Pressure

The pressure exerted by one gas in a mixture of gases.

First Law of Thermodynamics

The total amount of energy in the universe is constant (also known as the Law of Conservation of Energy) energy is neither created nor destroyed in ordinary chemical reactions and physical changes.