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Refers to the occurrence of an element in an uncombined or free state in nature.

 

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Downs Cell

Electrolytic cell for the commercial electrolysis of molten sodium chloride. For further information see Electrochemistry or Fuel Cells.

Ionic Bonding

Chemical bonding resulting from the transfer of one or more electrons from one atom or a group of atoms to another.

Hydrocarbons

Compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen.

Hund's Rule

All orbitals of a given sublevel must be occupied by single electrons before pairing begins.

Distillate

The material in a distillation apparatus that is collected in the receiver.

 

Crystal Field Stabilization Energy

A measure of the net energy of stabilization gained by a metal ion's nonbonding d electrons as a result of complex formation.

Combination Reaction

Reaction in which two substances (elements or compounds) combine to form one compound.

Electron

A subatomic particle having a mass of 0.00054858 amu and a charge of 1-.

Formula Weight

The mass of one formula unit of a substance in atomic mass units.

 

Canal Ray

Stream of positively charged particles (cations) that moves toward the negative electrode in cathode ray tubes, observed to pass through canals in the negative electrode.