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Refers to the occurrence of an element in an uncombined or free state in nature.

 

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Fractional Distillation

The process in which a fractioning column is used in distillation apparatus to separate components of a liquid mixture that have different boiling points.

Chain Reaction

A reaction that, once initiated, sustains itself and expands. This is a reaction in which reactive species, such as radicals, are produced in more than one step. These reactive species, radicals, propagate the chain reaction.

 

Aromatic Hydrocarbons

Benzene and its derivatives.

Sublimation

The direct vaporization of a sold by heating without passing through the liquid state.

Electrolyte

A substance whose aqueous solutions conduct electricity.

 

Dipole-dipole Interactions

Attractive interactions between polar molecules, that is, between molecules with permanent dipoles.

Ioniztion

The breaking up of a compound into separate ions.

Joule

A unit of energy in the SI system. One joule is 1 kg. m2/s2 which is also 0.2390 calorie.

Peroxide

A compound containing oxygen in the -1 oxidation state. Metal peroxides contain the peroxide ion, O22

Bronsted-Lowry Acid

A proton donor.