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Refers to the occurrence of an element in an uncombined or free state in nature.

 

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yttria

Y2O3: A white, water-insoluble powder, Y2O3, used chiefly in incandescent gas and acetylene mantles.

Hybridization

Mixing a set of atomic orbitals to form a new set of atomic orbitals with the same total electron capacity and with properties and energies intermediate between those of the original unhybridized orbitals.

xenon

A heavy, colorless, chemically inactive, monatomic gaseous element used for filling radio, television, and luminescent tubes. Symbol: Xe, at. wt.: 131.30, at. no.: 54.

Electrodes

Surfaces upon which oxidation and reduction half-reactions, occur in electrochemical cells.

xylic acid

Any of six colorless, crystalline, isomeric acids having the formula C9H10O2, derived from xylene.

First Law of Thermodynamics

The total amount of energy in the universe is constant (also known as the Law of Conservation of Energy) energy is neither created nor destroyed in ordinary chemical reactions and physical changes.

Mass Deficiency

The amount of matter that would be converted into energy if an atom were formed from constituent particles.

Polarimeter

A device used to measure optical activity.

Heterogeneous Equilibria

Equilibria involving species in more than one phase.

Valence Bond Theory

Assumes that covalent bonds are formed when atomic orbitals on different atoms overlap and the electrons are shared.