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Refers to species that have only six electrons in the highest energy level of the central element (many Lewis acids).

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pH

Negative logarithm of the concentration (mol/L) of the H3O+[H+] ion, scale is commonly used over a range 0 to 14.

Alpha Particles

A helium nucleus.

Free Energy, Gibbs Free Energy

The thermodynamic state function of a system that indicates the amount of energy available for the system to do useful work at constant T and P.

Pauli Exclusion Principle

No two electrons in the same atom may have identical sets of four quantum numbers.

Zone Refining

A method of purifying a bar of metal by passing it through an induction heater, this causes impurties to move along a melted portion. This method applies the fact when a metal crystallizes on cooling, impurities are automatically expelled as they do not form part of the crystal.

Electrodes

Surfaces upon which oxidation and reduction half-reactions, occur in electrochemical cells.

Pairing Energy

Energy required to pair two electrons in the same orbital.

Heat Capacity

The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a body (of any mass) one degree Celsius.

Metal

An element below and to the left of the stepwise division (metalloids) in the upper right corner of the periodic table, about 80% of the known elements are metals.

Diamagnetism

Weak repulsion by a magnetic field.