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Refers to species that have only six electrons in the highest energy level of the central element (many Lewis acids).

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Secondary Voltaic Cells

Voltaic cells that can be recharged, original reactanats can be regenerated be reversing the direction of the current flow.

Electron Configuration

Specific distribution of electrons in atomic orbitals of atoms or ions.

Control Rods

Rods of materials such as cadmium or boron steel that act as neutron obsorbers (not merely moderaters) used in nuclear reactors to control neutron fluxes and therfore rates of fission.

Canal Ray

Stream of positively charged particles (cations) that moves toward the negative electrode in cathode ray tubes, observed to pass through canals in the negative electrode.

Concentration

Amount of solute per unit volume or mass of solvent or of solution.

Absolute Entropy (of a substance)

The increase in the entropy of a substance as it goes from a perfectly ordered crystalline form at 0 °K (where its entropy is zero) to the temperature in question.

Entropy is a measure of the “dilution” of thermal energy.

Solubility Product Principle

The solubility product constant expression for a slightly soluble compound is the product of the concentrations of the constituent ions, each raised to the power that corresponds to the number of ions in one formula unit.

Joule

A unit of energy in the SI system. One joule is 1 kg. m2/s2 which is also 0.2390 calorie.

Iron

Discovered : known to ancient civilisations.

Origin : The name comes from the Anglo-Saxon ‘iren’, and the symbol from the Latin ‘ferrum’, meaning iron.
Description :Iron is an enigma - it rusts easily and yet is the most important of all metals, world production exceeds 700 million tons a year. Small amounts of carbon are added to iron to produce steel and when chromium.
is added to this, the result is non-corroding stainless steel (small amounts of nickel may also be added). Iron is also an essential element for all forms of life. The average human contains about 4 grams, much of which circulates as haemoglobin in the blood, the job of which is to carry oxygen from our lungs to where it is needed. If the diet does not contain 10 milligrams a day, anaemia will eventually develop. Foods such as liver, kidney, molasses, brewer’s yeast, cocoa and liquorice contain a lot of iron.
Atomic No:26 Mass No:56

Ester

A Compound of the general formula R-C-O-R1 where R and R1 may be the same or different, and may be either aliphatic or aromatic.