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Hydrated sulfates of the general formula M+M3+(SO4)2.12H2).

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Standard Molar Enthalphy of Formation

The amount of heat absorbed in the formation of one mole of a substance in a specified state from its elements in their standard states.

Fluids

Substances that flow freely, gases and liquids.

Polarization

The buildup of a product of oxidation or a reduction of an electrode, preventing further reaction.

Absolute Zero

The zero point on the absolute temperature scale, -273.15°C or 0 K, theoretically, the temperature at which molecular motion ceases. The concept of an absolute zero temperature was first deduced from experiments with gases. When a fixed volume of gas is cooled, its pressure decreases with its temperature. Absolute zero physically possesses quantum mechanical zero-point energy.

Basic Salt

A salt containing an ionizable OH group.

Phosphoric Acid

H3P04, Colorless liquid or rhombic crystals, decomposes before it will boil. Used mostly in the metal etchant. Used in cleaning operations to remove encrusted surface matter and mineral scale found on metal equipment such as boilers and steam producing equipment. Also used to brighten metals and remove rust.

Reaction Quotient

The mass action expression under any set of conditions (not necessarily equlibrium), its magnitude relative to K determines the direction in which the reaction must occur to establish equilibrium.

Acidic Salt

A salt containing an ionizable hydrogen atom. Acidic salt does not necessarily produce acidic solutions.

Polyene

A compound that contains more than one double bond per molecule.

Zone Refining

A method of purifying a bar of metal by passing it through an induction heater, this causes impurties to move along a melted portion. This method applies the fact when a metal crystallizes on cooling, impurities are automatically expelled as they do not form part of the crystal.