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Hydrated sulfates of the general formula M+M3+(SO4)2.12H2).

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Total Ionic Equation

Equation for a chemical reaction written to show the predominant form of all species in aqueous solution or in contact with water.

How to keep flowers in a vase for long time

The best gift for a woman, as you know, is a beautiful bouquet of flowers. But the cut flowers at home quite quickly wither. But your favorite roses or tulips can keep their freshness if you use our advice. Chemistry and various chemical elements will help us in this difficult matter!

Electronic Transition

The transfer of an electron from one energy level to another.

Reaction Quotient

The mass action expression under any set of conditions (not necessarily equlibrium), its magnitude relative to K determines the direction in which the reaction must occur to establish equilibrium.

Crystal Field Stabilization Energy

A measure of the net energy of stabilization gained by a metal ion's nonbonding d electrons as a result of complex formation.

Osmosis

The process by which solvent molecules pass through a semipermable membrane from a dilute solution into a more concentrated solution.

 

Semipermable Membrane

A thin partition between two solutions through which certain molecules can pass but others cannot.

Secondary Standard

A solution that has been titrated against a primary standard. A standard solution is a secondary standard.

 

Bomb Calorimeter

A device used to measure the heat transfer between system and surroundings at constant volume.

What's In Your Beverage? How to Ensure Quality Control with CO2 Analytical Support

Calibration standards, performance audits, and the FDA's never-ending safety, labeling, and inspection requirements are just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to dealing with the increasingly stringent quality control standards of the beverage industry.

As these quality standards become stricter, beverage producers are increasingly called upon to get products to market faster using fewer resources, while simultaneously managing ingredient quality, and ultimately, risk.