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A Ligand that exerts a weak crystal or ligand field and ge- nerally forms high spin complexes with metals.

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Mole Fraction

The number of moles of a component of a mixture divided by the total number of moles in the mixture.

 

Le Chatelier's Principle

States that a system at equilibrium, or striving to attain equilibrium, responds in such a way as to counteract any stress placed upon it.
If a stress (change of conditions) is applied to a system at equilibrium, the system shifts in the direction that reduces stress.

Optical Isomers

Stereoisomers that differ only by being nonsuperimposable mirror images of each other, like right and left hands, also called enantiomers.

Neutron

A neutral subatomic particle having a mass of 1.0087 amu.

Critical Temperature

The temperature above which a gas cannot be liquefied, the temperature above which a substance cannot exhibit distinct gas and liquid phases.

Hydration

Reaction of a substance with water.

Ampere

Unit of electrical current, one ampere equals one coulomb per second.

 

Galvanizing

Placing a thin layer of zinc on a ferrous material to protect the underlying surface from corrosion.

 

Fossil Fuels

Substances consisting largely of hydrocarbons, derived from decay of organic materials under geological conditions of high pressure and temperature (metamorphism) include coal, petroleum, natural gas, peat and oil shale.  For further information see Fuel Chemistry

Reversible Reaction

Reactions that do not go to completion and occur in both the forward and reverse direction.

Ideal Solution

A solution that obeys Raoult's Law exactly.

Raoult's Law

The vapor pressure of a solvent in an ideal solution decreases as its mole fraction decreases.

Noble Gases (Rare Gases)

Elements of the periodic Group 0, also called rare gases, formerly called inert gases, He,Ne,Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn.

Hydrometer

A device used to measure the densities of liquids and solutions.

Nitrogenases

A class of enzymes found in bacteria within root nodules in some plants, which catalyze reactions by which N2 molecules from the air are converted to ammonia.

 

Insoluble Compound

A very slightly soluble compound.

Foam

Colloidal suspension of a gas in a liquid.

Square Planar

A term used to describe molecules and polyatomic ions that have one atom in the center and four atoms at the corners of a square.

Vapor

A gas formed by boiling or evaporating a liquid.

Excited State

Any state other than the ground state of an atom or molecule.