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A group of atoms derived from an alkane by the removal of one hydrogen atom.

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The material in a distillation apparatus that is to be distilled.

Optical Activity

The rotation of plane polarized light by one of a pair of optical isomers.



Colloidal suspension of a solid dispersed in a liquid, a semirigid solid.

Boron Hydrides

Binary compounds of boron and hydrogen.

Quantum Mechanics

Mathematical method of treating particles on the basis of quantum theory, which assumes that energy (of small particles) is not infinitely divisible.

Fossil Fuels

Substances consisting largely of hydrocarbons, derived from decay of organic materials under geological conditions of high pressure and temperature (metamorphism) include coal, petroleum, natural gas, peat and oil shale.  For further information see Fuel Chemistry

Heat of Solution

The amount of heat absorbed in the formation of solution that contains one mole of solute, the value is positive if heat is absorbed (endothermic) and negative if heat is released (exothermic).

Electrode Potentials

Potentials, E, of half-reactions as reductions versus the standard hydrogen electrode.


The process by which solvent molecules pass through a semipermable membrane from a dilute solution into a more concentrated solution.



The direct solidification of a vapor by cooling, the reverse of sublimation.