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A group of atoms derived from an alkane by the removal of one hydrogen atom.

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Effective Molality

The sum of the molalities of all solute particles in a solution.

Metallic Conduction

Conduction of electrical current through a metal or along a metallic surface.

Bomb Calorimeter

A device used to measure the heat transfer between system and surroundings at constant volume.

Viscosity

Resistance offered by the molecules of a liquid to flow is termed as viscosity.

Photochemical Oxidants

Photochemically produced oxidizing agents capable of causing damage to plants and animals.

Vapor

A gas formed by boiling or evaporating a liquid.

Absolute Zero

The zero point on the absolute temperature scale, -273.15°C or 0 K, theoretically, the temperature at which molecular motion ceases. The concept of an absolute zero temperature was first deduced from experiments with gases. When a fixed volume of gas is cooled, its pressure decreases with its temperature. Absolute zero physically possesses quantum mechanical zero-point energy.

Radioactive Tracer

A small amount of radioisotope replacing a nonradioactive isotope of the element in a compound whose path (for example, in the body) or whose decomposition products are to be monitored by detection of radioctivity, also called a radioactive label.

Voltage

Potential difference between two electrodes, a measure of the chemical potential for a redox reaction to occur.

Debye

The unit used to express dipole moments.