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The energy stored in the nucleus of an atom and released through fission, fusion, or radioactivity. In these processes a small amount of mass is converted to energy according to the relationship E = mc2, where E is energy, m is mass, and c is the speed of light.

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Atomic Orbital

Region or volume in space in which the probability of finding electrons is highest.

Condensation

Liquefaction of vapor.

Substitution Reaction

A reaction in which an atom or a group of atoms is replaced by another atom or group of atoms.

Crystal Lattice Energy

Amount of energy that holds a crystal together, the energy change when a mole of solid is formed from its constituent molecules or ions (for ionic compounds) in their gaseous state.

Hybridization

Mixing a set of atomic orbitals to form a new set of atomic orbitals with the same total electron capacity and with properties and energies intermediate between those of the original unhybridized orbitals.

Doublet

Two peaks or bands of about equal intensity appearing close together on a spectrogram.

Endothermicity

The absorption of heat by a system as the process occurs.

Titration

A Procedure in which one solution is added to another solution until the chemical reaction between the two solutes is complete, the concentration of one solution is known and that of the other is unknown.

 

Law of Conservation of Matter

There is no detectable change in the quantity of matter during an ordinary chemical reaction.

Use of diamonds

Diamond is a crystalline modification of pure carbon formed in the deep interior of the Earth, in the upper mantle at depths of more than 80-100 kilometers, at exceptionally high pressure and temperature. It is the most precious stone, the hardest and most wear-resistant mineral, the most brilliant and timeless gem.