The energy stored in the nucleus of an atom and released through fission, fusion, or radioactivity. In these processes a small amount of mass is converted to energy according to the relationship E = mc2, where E is energy, m is mass, and c is the speed of light.
- Diamonds Are Forever
Diamonds are still a girl's best friend, right? We love the shiny gems. They are the most popular rocks sold today. But what exactly are they, anyway? Where do they come from? What else are they used for?
- What's In Your Beverage? How to Ensure Quality Control with CO2 Analytical Support
Calibration standards, performance audits, and the FDA's never-ending safety, labeling, and inspection requirements are just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to dealing with the increasingly stringent quality control standards of the beverage industry. As these quality standards become...
- What are Compound Microscopes?
Most of the microscopes used today are compound. A compound microscope features two or more lenses. A hollow cylinder called the tube connects the two lenses. The top lens, the one people look through, is called the eyepiece. The bottom lens is known as the objective lens. Below the two lenses is...
- Protein Design: Automated protein discovery and synthesis
In this paper I describe (theoretically) the method(s) of automated protein discovery and synthesis.
- Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope
The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...
A measure of the intensity of heat, i.e. the hotness or coldness of a sample. or object.
Mixing of metal with other substances (usually other metals) to modify its properties.
The pressure of the gas above a solution is proportional to the concentration of the gas in the solution.
Acid that can form only one hydronium ion per molecule, may be strong or weak. Acid that contains one ionizable hydrogen atom per formula unit.
A term used to describe molecules and polyatomic ions that have one atom in the center and six atoms at the corners of a octahedron.
The buildup of a product of oxidation or a reduction of an electrode, preventing further reaction.
Photochemically produced oxidizing agents capable of causing damage to plants and animals.
Chemical bond formed by the sharing of one or more electron pairs between two atoms.
Substance that stoichiometrically limits the amount of product(s) that can be formed.
An atom or group of atoms that contains one or more unpaired electrons (usually very reactive species)
Diagram that shows equilibrium temperature-pressure relationships for different phases of a substance.
Numbers that describe the energies of electrons in atoms, derived from quantum mechanical treatment.
The solvent-like phase in a colloid.
A salt or ester of xanthic acid. Many xanthates have a yellow color. Xanthates are used as flotation agents in mineral processing.
Refers to substances that crystallize in more than one crystalline arrangement.
Sand, rock, and other impurities surrounding the mineral of interest in an ore.
Ion Product for Water
Equilibrium constant for the ionization of water, Kw = [H3O+][OH-] =1.00 x 10-14 at 25 °C.
Coordination Compound or Complex
A compound containing coordinate covalent bonds.
A class of enzymes found in bacteria within root nodules in some plants, which catalyze reactions by which N2 molecules from the air are converted to ammonia.
Elements 89 to 103 (between lawrencium and actinium) on the periodic table. Only the first four have been found in nature in appreciable amounts. The remainder have been produced synthetically.