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The entropy of a hypothetical pure, perfect, crystalline sustance at absolute zero temperature is zero.

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Proton

A subatomic particle having a mass of 1.0073 amu and a charge of +1, found in thew nuclei of atoms.

Atomic Weight

Weighted average of the masses of the constituent isotopes of an element, The relative masses of atoms of different elements.

Metallic Bonding

Bonding within metals due to the electrical attraction of positively charges metal ions for mobile electrons that belong to the crystal as a whole.

Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

It is impossible to determine accurately both the momentum and position of an electron simultaneously.

Differential Thermometer

A thermometer used for accurate measurement of very small changes in temperature.

Solute

The dispersed (dissolved) phase of a solution.

Weak Field Ligand

A Ligand that exerts a weak crystal or ligand field and ge- nerally forms high spin complexes with metals.

Halogens

Group VIIA elements: F, Cl, Br, I

Miscibility

The ability of one liquid to mix with (dissolve in) another liquid.

Atom

The smallest particle of an element.

Energy

The capacity to do work or transfer heat.

Photochemical Oxidants

Photochemically produced oxidizing agents capable of causing damage to plants and animals.

Quantum Numbers

Numbers that describe the energies of electrons in atoms, derived from quantum mechanical treatment.

Enthalpy

The heat content of a specific amount of substance, defined as E= PV.

Atomic Number


Integral number of protons in the nucleus, defines the identity of element.
 

Essential Oil

A plant extract that has a distinctive odour or flavour.

Conjugated Double Bonds

Double bonds that are separated from each other by one single bond -C=C-C=C-.

Activity Series

A listing of metals (and hydrogen) in order of decreasing activity.

Ideal Gas

A hypothetical gas that obeys exactly all postulates of the kinetic-molecular theory.

 

Distillation

The separation of a liquid mixture into its components on the basis of differences in boiling points. The process in which components of a mixture are separated by boiling away the more volitile liquid.