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The entropy of a hypothetical pure, perfect, crystalline sustance at absolute zero temperature is zero.

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Electrolyte

A substance whose aqueous solutions conduct electricity.

 

Radiation

High energy particles or rays emitted during the nuclear decay processes.

Chemical Kinetics

The study of rates and mechanisms of chemical reactions and of the factors on which they depend.

Common Ion Effect

Suppression of ionization of a weak electrolyte by the presence in the same solution of a strong electrolyte containing one of the same ions as the weak electrolyte.

Rate-law Expression

Equation relating the rate of a reaction to the concentrations of the reactants and the specific rate of the constant.

Sigma Bonds

Bonds resulting from the head-on overlap of atomic orbitals, in which the region of electron sharing is along and (cylindrically) symmetrical to the imaginary line connecting the bonded atoms.

Peroxide

A compound containing oxygen in the -1 oxidation state. Metal peroxides contain the peroxide ion, O22

Heat of Solution

The amount of heat absorbed in the formation of solution that contains one mole of solute, the value is positive if heat is absorbed (endothermic) and negative if heat is released (exothermic).

Oxidizing Agent

The substance that oxidizes another substance and is reduced.

Frasch Process

Method by which elemental sulfur is mined or extracted. Sulfur is melted with superheated water (at 170°C under high pressure) and forced to the surface of the earth as a slurry.