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The entropy of a hypothetical pure, perfect, crystalline sustance at absolute zero temperature is zero.

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Polarization

The buildup of a product of oxidation or a reduction of an electrode, preventing further reaction.

Ionization Energy

The minimum amount of energy required to remove the most loosely held electron of an isolated gaseous atom or ion.

Pairing Energy

Energy required to pair two electrons in the same orbital.

Downs Cell

Electrolytic cell for the commercial electrolysis of molten sodium chloride. For further information see Electrochemistry or Fuel Cells.

Ion Product for Water

Equilibrium constant for the ionization of water, Kw = [H3O+][OH-] =1.00 x 10-14 at 25 °C.

Limiting Reactant

Substance that stoichiometrically limits the amount of product(s) that can be formed.

Periodic Table

An arrangement of elements in order of increasing atomic numbers that also emphasizes periodicity.

Quantum Numbers

Numbers that describe the energies of electrons in atoms, derived from quantum mechanical treatment.

Amphiprotism

Ability of a substance to exhibit amphiprotism by accepting donated protons.

Salicylate

A salt or ester of salicylic acid.