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Decomposition by heating a substance in the presence of a catalyst and in the absence of air.

 

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Downs Cell

Electrolytic cell for the commercial electrolysis of molten sodium chloride. For further information see Electrochemistry or Fuel Cells.

Functional Group

A group of atoms that represents a potential reaction site in an organic compound.

Acyl Group

Compound derived from a carbonic acid by replacing the --OH group with a halogen (X), usually --Cl, general formula is O R--C--X.

Critical Temperature

The temperature above which a gas cannot be liquefied, the temperature above which a substance cannot exhibit distinct gas and liquid phases.

xanthene dye

Any of a group of dyes having a molecular structure related to that of xanthene in which the aromatic (C6H4) groups are the chromophore.

 

Molecular Orbital Theory

A theory of chemical bonding based upon the postulated existence of molecular orbitals.

Avogadro's Law

At the same temperature and pressure, equal volumes of all gases contain the same number of molecules.

Heterogeneous Equilibria

Equilibria involving species in more than one phase.

Proton

A subatomic particle having a mass of 1.0073 amu and a charge of +1, found in thew nuclei of atoms.

Cell Potential

Potential difference, Ecell, between oxidation and reduction half-cells under nonstandard conditions.