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A term used to describe molecules and polyatomic ions that have one atom in center and four atoms at the corners of a tetrahedron.

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Electrode Potentials

Potentials, E, of half-reactions as reductions versus the standard hydrogen electrode.

Cathodic Protection

Protection of a metal (making ir a cathode) against corrosion by attaching it to a sacrifical anode of a more easily oxidized metal.

Bond Order

Half the numbers of electrons in bonding orbitals minus half the number of electrons in antibonding orbitals. Bond order gives an indication to the stability of a bond. Also defined as the difference between the number of bonding electrons and antibonding electrons divided by two.

Isoelectric

Having the same electronic configurations.

Heat of Crystallization

The amount of heat that must be removed from one gram of a liquid at its freezing point to freeze it with no change in temperature.

Hydrolysis

The reaction of a substance with water or its ions.

Lanthanides

Elements 58 to 71 (after lanthanum).

Explosive

A chemical or compound that causes a sudden, almost instantaneous release or pressure, gas, heat and light when subjected to sudden shock, pressure, high temperature or applied potential.

Noble Gases (Rare Gases)

Elements of the periodic Group 0, also called rare gases, formerly called inert gases, He,Ne,Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn.

Intermolecular Forces

Forces between individual particles (atoms, molecules, ions) of a substance.