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A term used to describe molecules and polyatomic ions that have one atom in center and four atoms at the corners of a tetrahedron.

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Vapor

A gas formed by boiling or evaporating a liquid.

D-Orbitals

Beginning in the third energy level, aset of five degenerate orbitals per energy level, higher in energy than s and p orbitals of the same energy level.

 

Resonance

The concept in which two or more equivalent dot formulas for the same arrangement of atoms (resonance structures) are necessary to describe the bonding in a molecule or ion.

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Total Ionic Equation

Equation for a chemical reaction written to show the predominant form of all species in aqueous solution or in contact with water.

Alkaline Earth Metals

Group IIA metals

Dynamic Equilibrium

An equilibrium in which processes occur continuously, with no net change. When two (or more) processes occur at the same rate so that no net change occurs.

Method of Initial Rates

Method of determining the rate-law expression by carrying out a reaction with different initial concentrations and analyzing the resultant changes in initial rates.

Ternary Acid

A ternary compound containing H, O, and another element, often a nonmetal.

Electrode Potentials

Potentials, E, of half-reactions as reductions versus the standard hydrogen electrode.