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A term used to describe molecules and polyatomic ions that have one atom in center and four atoms at the corners of a tetrahedron.

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Hydrometer

A device used to measure the densities of liquids and solutions.

Phase Diagram

Diagram that shows equilibrium temperature-pressure relationships for different phases of a substance.

Nodal Plane

A region in which the probability of finding an electron is zero.

 

Spectator Ions

Ions in a solution that do not participate in a chemical reaction.

Positron

A Nuclear particle with the mass of an electron but opposite charge.

How to make crystal glass

From history we know that the idea of creating crystal belongs to the British: they were the first to add lead oxides to the charge material, and as a result got glass with unusual “voice”, transparency and sparkling faces. Classical crystal contains 24% of lead oxide, but there are products with a higher content of up to 30%.

Bond Order

Half the numbers of electrons in bonding orbitals minus half the number of electrons in antibonding orbitals. Bond order gives an indication to the stability of a bond. Also defined as the difference between the number of bonding electrons and antibonding electrons divided by two.

Critical Mass

The minimum mass of a particular fissionable nuclide in a given volume required to sustain a nuclear chain reaction.

Optical Activity

The rotation of plane polarized light by one of a pair of optical isomers.

 

Liquid Aerosol

Colloidal suspension of liquid in gas.