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A heterogeneous mixture in which solute-like particles settle out of solvent-like phase some time after their introduction.

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Equation of State

An equation that describes the behavior of matter in a given state, the van der Waals equation describes the behavior of the gaseous state.

Zone Refining

A method of purifying a bar of metal by passing it through an induction heater, this causes impurties to move along a melted portion. This method applies the fact when a metal crystallizes on cooling, impurities are automatically expelled as they do not form part of the crystal.

Alums

Hydrated sulfates of the general formula M+M3+(SO4)2.12H2).

Metalloids

Elements with properties intermediate between metals and nonmetals: B, Al, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te, Po, and At.

Nernst Equation

Corrects standard electrode potentials for nonstandard conditions.

Strong Electrolyte

A substance that conducts electricity well in a dilute aqueous solution.

 

Heat of Vaporization

The amount of heat required to vaporize one gram of a liquid at its boiling point with no change in temperature. Usually expressed in J/g. The molar heat of vaporization is the amount of heat required to vaporize one mole of liquid at its boiling point with no change in temperature and usually expressed ion kJ/mol.

Quantum Numbers

Numbers that describe the energies of electrons in atoms, derived from quantum mechanical treatment.

Electroplating

Plating a metal onto a (cathodic) surface by electrolysis.

Alkylbenzene

A compound containing an alkyl group bonded to a benzene ring.