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The amount of heat absorbed in the formation of one mole of a substance in a specified state from its elements in their standard states.

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Ionic Compounds

Compounds containing predominantly ionic bonding.

Meniscus

The shape assumed by the surface of a liquid in a cylindrical container.

Law of Conservation of Matter and Energy

The total amount of matter and energy available in the universe is fixed.

Galvanizing

Placing a thin layer of zinc on a ferrous material to protect the underlying surface from corrosion.

 

Born-Haber Cycle

A series of reactions (and accompanying enthalpy changes) which, when summed, represents the hypothetical one-step reaction by which elements in their standard states are converted into crystals of ionic compounds (and the accompanying enthalpy changes.)

Electrophile

Positively charged or electron-deficient.

Molarity

Number of moles of solute per litre of solution.

Coulometry

The quantitative application of Faraday's Law to the analysis of materials. The current and time are the usual variables measured.

Dynamic Equilibrium

An equilibrium in which processes occur continuously, with no net change. When two (or more) processes occur at the same rate so that no net change occurs.

Lone Pair

Pair of electrons residing on one atom and not shared by other atoms, unshared pair.