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A solution that has been titrated against a primary standard. A standard solution is a secondary standard.

 

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Net Ionic Equation

Equation that results from canceling spectator ions and eliminating brackets from a total ionic equation.

Radioactive Dating

Method of dating ancient objects by determining the ratio of amounts of mother and daughter nuclides present in an object and relating the ratio to the object?s age via half-life calculations.

Phase Diagram

Diagram that shows equilibrium temperature-pressure relationships for different phases of a substance.

Fluids

Substances that flow freely, gases and liquids.

Mole Fraction

The number of moles of a component of a mixture divided by the total number of moles in the mixture.

 

Frasch Process

Method by which elemental sulfur is mined or extracted. Sulfur is melted with superheated water (at 170°C under high pressure) and forced to the surface of the earth as a slurry.

 

Standard Reaction

A reaction in which the numbers of moles of reactants shown in the balanced equation, all in their standard states, are completely converted to the numbers of moles of products shown in the balanced equation, also sall at their standard state.

Hydrogen Bond

A fairly strong dipole-dipole interaction (but still considerably weaker than the covalent or ionic bonds) between molecules containing hydrogen directly bonded to a small, highly electronegative atom, such as N, O, or F.

Molecular Orbital

An orbit resulting from overlap and mixing of atomic orbitals on different atoms. An MO belongs to the molecule as a whole.

First Law of Thermodynamics

The total amount of energy in the universe is constant (also known as the Law of Conservation of Energy) energy is neither created nor destroyed in ordinary chemical reactions and physical changes.

Anode

In a cathode ray tube, the positive electrode. Electrode at which oxidation occurs.

Critical Temperature

The temperature above which a gas cannot be liquefied, the temperature above which a substance cannot exhibit distinct gas and liquid phases.

Oxidation

An algebraic increase in the oxidation number, may correspond to a loss of electrons.

Diamagnetism

Weak repulsion by a magnetic field.

Positron

A Nuclear particle with the mass of an electron but opposite charge.

Distillation

The separation of a liquid mixture into its components on the basis of differences in boiling points. The process in which components of a mixture are separated by boiling away the more volitile liquid.

Curie (Ci)

The basic unit used to describe the intensity of radioactivity in a sample of material. One curie equals 37 billion disintegrations per second or approximately the amount of radioactivty given off by 1 gram of radium.

Alkaline Battery

A dry cell in which the electrolyte contains KOH.

Levorotatory

Refers to an optically active substance that rotates the plane of plane polarized light counterclockwise, also called levo.

Gel

Colloidal suspension of a solid dispersed in a liquid, a semirigid solid.