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A solution that has been titrated against a primary standard. A standard solution is a secondary standard.

 

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Coordination Sphere

The metal ion and its coordinating ligands but not any uncoordinated counter-ions.

Standard Electrode Potential

By convention, potential, Eo, of a half-reaction as a reduction relative to the standard hydrogen electrode when all species are present at unit activity.

 

Born-Haber Cycle

A series of reactions (and accompanying enthalpy changes) which, when summed, represents the hypothetical one-step reaction by which elements in their standard states are converted into crystals of ionic compounds (and the accompanying enthalpy changes.)

Molecular Geometry

The arrangement of atoms (not lone pairs of electrons) around a central atom of a molecule or polyatomic ion.

Ore

A natural deposit containing a mineral of an element to be extracted.

Percent by Mass

100% times the actual yield divided by theoretical yield.

Vapor

A gas formed by boiling or evaporating a liquid.

Polarimeter

A device used to measure optical activity.

Photochemical Smog

A brownish smog occurring in urban areas receiving large amounts of sunlight, caused by photochemical (light-induced) reactions among nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons and other components of polluted air that produce photochemical oxidants.

 

Law of Definite Proportions (Law of Constant Composition)

The law stating that a pure substance will always have the same percent by weight. Different samples of a pure compound always contain the same elements in the same proportions by mass.