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The universe tends toward a state of greater diorder in spontaneous processes.

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  • What's In Your Beverage? How to Ensure Quality Control with CO2 Analytical Support

    Calibration standards, performance audits, and the FDA's never-ending safety, labeling, and inspection requirements are just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to dealing with the increasingly stringent quality control standards of the beverage industry. As these quality standards become...

  • Why do copper products change color, and what is the name of the process?

    Probably, every person wants to know, why over time the copper turns green and becomes bloomed. This is easy to explain: that film is called patina.

  • The most expensive metal in the world

    Do you think the most expensive metal is gold? No! On earth there are more valuable metals. But we need to divide the value of metals that occur in nature, and metals - isotopes, which are obtained in special laboratories. Let’s look at natural metals first.

  • Use of diamonds

    Diamond is a crystalline modification of pure carbon formed in the deep interior of the Earth, in the upper mantle at depths of more than 80-100 kilometers, at exceptionally high pressure and temperature. It is the most precious stone, the hardest and most wear-resistant mineral, the most...

  • Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...



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Paramagnetism

Attraction toward a magnetic field, stronger than diamagnetism, but still weak compared to ferromagnetism.

Photochemical Oxidants

Photochemically produced oxidizing agents capable of causing damage to plants and animals.

Daughter Nuclide

Nuclide that is produced in a nuclear decay.

 

Atomic Number


Integral number of protons in the nucleus, defines the identity of element.
 

Ferromagnetism

The ability of a substance to become permanently magnetized by exposure to an external magnetic field.

Polymorphous

Refers to substances that crystallize in more than one crystalline arrangement.

Optical Activity

The rotation of plane polarized light by one of a pair of optical isomers.

 

Oil

Liquid triester of glycerol and unsaturated fatty acids.

Native State

Refers to the occurrence of an element in an uncombined or free state in nature.

 

Sigma Orbital

Molecular orbital resulting from head-on overlap of two atomic orbitals.