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The universe tends toward a state of greater diorder in spontaneous processes.

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Alkali Metals

Metals of Group IA (Na, K, Rb).


A substance that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical means.

Formula Weight

The mass of one formula unit of a substance in atomic mass units.



Hydrated sulfates of the general formula M+M3+(SO4)2.12H2).

Raoult's Law

The vapor pressure of a solvent in an ideal solution decreases as its mole fraction decreases.

Effective Molality

The sum of the molalities of all solute particles in a solution.


The very small, very dense, positively charged center of an atom containing protons and neutrons, as well as other subatomic particles.

Differential Thermometer

A thermometer used for accurate measurement of very small changes in temperature.

Electrolytic Cells

Electrochemical cells in which electrical energy causes nospontaneous redox reactions to occur. An electrochemical cell in which chemical reactions are forced to occur by the application of an outside source of electrical energy.

Square Planar

A term used to describe molecules and polyatomic ions that have one atom in the center and four atoms at the corners of a square.