An instrument for measuring the amount of salt in a solution. Also,"salimeter, salometer."
- Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope
The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...
- Harmful Chemicals Found In Food
It's getting close to New Years and many people are starting to think about how to lose those extra pounds they managed to gain over the holidays. There are many sorts of diets and fads that have developed over the years from cutting carbs to cutting protein. Everyone has their own opinion as to...
- What's In Your Beverage? How to Ensure Quality Control with CO2 Analytical Support
Calibration standards, performance audits, and the FDA's never-ending safety, labeling, and inspection requirements are just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to dealing with the increasingly stringent quality control standards of the beverage industry. As these quality standards become...
- Chemical Safety
People use chemicals every day for a wide array of purposes, which can include work and house hold duties. Many of us fail to realize that we are actually handling potentially deadly chemicals when we simply clean the bathroom or wash the car. This brings to mind the reason why chemical safety is...
- Diamonds Are Forever
Diamonds are still a girl's best friend, right? We love the shiny gems. They are the most popular rocks sold today. But what exactly are they, anyway? Where do they come from? What else are they used for?
The energy stored in the nucleus of an atom and released through fission, fusion, or radioactivity. In these processes a small amount of mass is converted to energy according to the relationship E = mc2, where E is energy, m is mass, and c is the speed of light.
Free Energy, Gibbs Free Energy
The thermodynamic state function of a system that indicates the amount of energy available for the system to do useful work at constant T and P.
A unit of pressure, the pressure that will support a column of mercury 760 mm high at 0 °C.
Refers to the overall processes by which metals are extracted from ores.
A favourable interaction of two electrons with opposite m , values in the same orbital.
A device used to measure the heat transfer between system and surroundings.
Elements 58 to 71 (after lanthanum).
Bonds resulting from the head-on overlap of atomic orbitals, in which the region of electron sharing is along and (cylindrically) symmetrical to the imaginary line connecting the bonded atoms.
A reaction in which two atoms or groups of atoms are added to a molecule, one on each side of a double or triple bond. Types of addition reaction include electrophilic, nucleophilic (polar) and free radical addition (non-polar).
Many representative elements attain at least a share of eight electrons in their valence shells when they form molecular or ionic compounds, there are some limitations.
A reaction in which an atom or a group of atoms is replaced by another atom or group of atoms.
The range of concentrations over which a flammable vapour mixed with proper ratios of air will ignite or explode if a source of ignitions is provided.
Alpha (a) Particle
Helium ion with 2+ charge, an assembly of two protons and two neutrons.
A heterogeneous mixture in which solute-like particles settle out of solvent-like phase some time after their introduction.
Unit of electrical current, one ampere equals one coulomb per second.
The prefix used to indicate that groups are located on the same side of a bon about which rotation is restricted.
A natural deposit containing a mineral of an element to be extracted.
Energy that matter possesses by virtue of its position, condition or composition.
Formula that indicates the actual number of atoms present in a molecule of a molecular substance.
The amount of energy absorbed in the process in which an electron is added to a neutral isolated gaseous atom to form a gaseous ion with a 1- charge, has a negative value if energy is released.