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There is no detectable change in the quantity of matter during an ordinary chemical reaction.

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Exothermic

Describes processes that release heat energy.

Electronic Transition

The transfer of an electron from one energy level to another.

Nonbonding Orbital

A molecular orbital derived only from an atomic orbital of one atom, lends neither stability nor instability to a molecule or ion when populated with electrons.

Crystal Lattice Energy

Amount of energy that holds a crystal together, the energy change when a mole of solid is formed from its constituent molecules or ions (for ionic compounds) in their gaseous state.

Weak Field Ligand

A Ligand that exerts a weak crystal or ligand field and ge- nerally forms high spin complexes with metals.

Octahedral

A term used to describe molecules and polyatomic ions that have one atom in the center and six atoms at the corners of a octahedron.

Melting Point

The temperature at which liquid and solid coexist in equilibrium, also the freezing point.

Ground State

The lowest energy state or most stable state of an atom, molecule or ion.

Effective Nuclear Charge

The nuclear charge experienced by the outermost electrons of an atom, the actual nuclear charge minus the effects of shielding due to inner-shell electrons.
Example: Set of dx2-y2 and dz2 orbitals, those d orbitals within a set with lobes directed along the x-, y-, and z-axes.

Functional Group

A group of atoms that represents a potential reaction site in an organic compound.