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Characteristic of the post-transition minerals, tendency of the outermost s electrons to remain nonionized or un shared in compounds.

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Polarization

The buildup of a product of oxidation or a reduction of an electrode, preventing further reaction.

Resonance

The concept in which two or more equivalent dot formulas for the same arrangement of atoms (resonance structures) are necessary to describe the bonding in a molecule or ion.

Biodegradability

The ability of a substance to be broken down into simpler substances by bacteria.

 

Molality

Concentration expressed as number of moles of solute per kilogram of solvent.

Catenation

Bonding of atoms of the same element into chains or rings.
The bonding together of atoms of the same element to form chains.
The ability of an element to bond to itself.

Chain Reaction

A reaction that, once initiated, sustains itself and expands. This is a reaction in which reactive species, such as radicals, are produced in more than one step. These reactive species, radicals, propagate the chain reaction.

 

Critical Temperature

The temperature above which a gas cannot be liquefied, the temperature above which a substance cannot exhibit distinct gas and liquid phases.

Ionic Bonding

Chemical bonding resulting from the transfer of one or more electrons from one atom or a group of atoms to another.

Periodic Law

The properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers.

Substitution Reaction

A reaction in which an atom or a group of atoms is replaced by another atom or group of atoms.

Critical Mass

The minimum mass of a particular fissionable nuclide in a given volume required to sustain a nuclear chain reaction.

Adhesive Forces

Forces of attraction between a liquid and another surface.

Formula Unit

The smallest repeating unit of a substance. The molecule for nonionic substances

Breeder Reactor

A nuclear reactor that produces more fissionable nuclear fuel than it consumes.

Fossil Fuels

Substances consisting largely of hydrocarbons, derived from decay of organic materials under geological conditions of high pressure and temperature (metamorphism) include coal, petroleum, natural gas, peat and oil shale.  For further information see Fuel Chemistry

Salicylaldehyde

An oily, slightly water-soluble liquid, C7H6O2, having an almondlike odor: used chiefly in perfumery and in the synthesis of coumarin.

Equilibrium or Chemical Equilibrium

A state of dynamic balance in which the rates of forward and reverse reactions are equal, the state of a system when neither forward or reverse reaction is thermodynamically favored.

Colloid

A heterogeneous mixture in which solute-like particles do not settle out.

Domain

A cluster of atoms in a ferromagnetic substance, all of which align in the same direction in the presence of an external magnetic field.

Conjugate Acid-base Pair

In Bronsted-Lowry terminology, a reactant and product that differ by a proton, H+.