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A solution that obeys Raoult's Law exactly.

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Percent by Mass

100% times the actual yield divided by theoretical yield.

Supercooled Liquids

Liquids that, when cooled, apparently solidify but actually continue to flow very slowly under the influence of gravity e.g glass.

Isomers

Different substances that have the same formula.

Eluant or eluent

The solvent used in the process of elution, as in liquid chromatography.

 

Alums

Hydrated sulfates of the general formula M+M3+(SO4)2.12H2).

Buret

A piece of volumetric glassware, usually graduated in 0.1-mL intervals, that is used to deliver solutions to be used in titrations in a quantitative (dropwise) manner.

Anode

In a cathode ray tube, the positive electrode. Electrode at which oxidation occurs.

Allotropes

Different forms of the same element in the same physical state.

Ferromagnetism

The ability of a substance to become permanently magnetized by exposure to an external magnetic field.

Gamma Ray

High energy electromagnetic radiation. A highly penetrating type of nuclear radiation similar to x-ray radiation, except that it comes from within the nucleus of an atom and has a higher energy. Energywise, very similar to cosmic ray except that cosmic rays originate from outer space.

Electron Configuration

Specific distribution of electrons in atomic orbitals of atoms or ions.

Buffer Solution

Solution that resists change in pH, contains either a weak acid and a soluble ionic salt of the acid or a weak base and a soluble ionic salt of the base.

Peroxide

A compound containing oxygen in the -1 oxidation state. Metal peroxides contain the peroxide ion, O22

Clay

A class of silicate and aluminosilicate minerals with sheet-like structures that have enormous surface areas that can absorb large amounts of water.

Equilibrium or Chemical Equilibrium

A state of dynamic balance in which the rates of forward and reverse reactions are equal, the state of a system when neither forward or reverse reaction is thermodynamically favored.

Explosive limits

The range of concentrations over which a flammable vapour mixed with proper ratios of air will ignite or explode if a source of ignitions is provided.

Metalloids

Elements with properties intermediate between metals and nonmetals: B, Al, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te, Po, and At.

Isomorphous

Refers to crystals having the same atomic arrangement.

Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory

Assumes that electron pairs are arranged around the central element of a molecule or polyatomic ion so that there is maximum separation (and minimum repulsion) among regions of high electron density.

 

Extensive Property

A property that depends upon the amount of material in a sample.