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The reaction in which hydrogen adds across a double or triple bond.

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Complex Ions

Ions resulting from the formation of coordinate covalent bonds between simple ions and other ions or molecules.

Molarity

Number of moles of solute per litre of solution.

Phosphoric Acid

H3P04, Colorless liquid or rhombic crystals, decomposes before it will boil. Used mostly in the metal etchant. Used in cleaning operations to remove encrusted surface matter and mineral scale found on metal equipment such as boilers and steam producing equipment. Also used to brighten metals and remove rust.

Heterogeneous Mixture

A mixture that does not have uniform composition and properties throughout.

Percent Purity

The percent of a specified compound or element in an impure sample.

Acetic Acid

CA3COOH, clear, colorless liquid, pungent odor. Boiling point 140C, flash point 54C (closed cup), autoignition temperature 38OC.

Hydration Energy

The energy change accompanying the hydration of a mole of gase and ions.

Effective Molality

The sum of the molalities of all solute particles in a solution.

Bonding Orbital

A molecular orbit lower in energy than any of the atomic orbitals from which it is derived, lends stability to a molecule or ion when populated with electron.

Lanthanides

Elements 58 to 71 (after lanthanum).