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A catalyst that exists in a different phase (solid, liquid or gas) from the reactants, a contact catalyst.

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Ion

An atom or a group of atoms that carries an electric charge.

End Point

The point at which an indicator changes colour and a titration is stopped.

xanthate

A salt or ester of xanthic acid. Many xanthates have a yellow color. Xanthates are used as flotation agents in mineral processing.

Emission Spectrum

Spectrum associated with emission of electromagnetic radiation by atoms (or other species) resulting from electronic transitions from higher to lower energy states.

 

Heterogeneous Equilibria

Equilibria involving species in more than one phase.

Doublet

Two peaks or bands of about equal intensity appearing close together on a spectrogram.

Clay

A class of silicate and aluminosilicate minerals with sheet-like structures that have enormous surface areas that can absorb large amounts of water.

Indicators

For acid-base titrations, organic compounds that exhibit different colors in solutions of different acidities, used to determine the point at which reaction between two solutes is complete.

Bronsted-Lowry Acid

A proton donor.

Hydrometer

A device used to measure the densities of liquids and solutions.