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In describing crystals, the number of nearest neighbours of an atom or ion. The number of donor atoms coordinated to a metal.

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Entropy

A thermodynamic state or property that measures the degree of disorder or randomness of a system.

Frasch Process

Method by which elemental sulfur is mined or extracted. Sulfur is melted with superheated water (at 170°C under high pressure) and forced to the surface of the earth as a slurry.

 

Fractional Precipitation

Removal of some ions from solution by precipitation while leaving other ions with similar properties in solution.

Yellowcake

The solid form of mixed uranium oxide, which is produced from uranium ore in the uranium recovery (milling) process.

Fractional Distillation

The process in which a fractioning column is used in distillation apparatus to separate components of a liquid mixture that have different boiling points.

Nitrogen Cycle

The complex series of reactions by which nitrogen is slowly but continually recycled in the atmosphere, lithosphere and hydrosphere.

 

Hydrocarbons

Compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen.

Electrode Potentials

Potentials, E, of half-reactions as reductions versus the standard hydrogen electrode.

Eutrophication

The undesirable overgrowth of vegetation caused by high concentrates of plant nutrients in bodies of water.

Hund's Rule

All orbitals of a given sublevel must be occupied by single electrons before pairing begins.