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In describing crystals, the number of nearest neighbours of an atom or ion. The number of donor atoms coordinated to a metal.

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Coordination Sphere

The metal ion and its coordinating ligands but not any uncoordinated counter-ions.

Dissociation

In aqueous solution, the process in which a solid ionic compound separates into its ions.

Specific Gravity

The ratio of the density of a substance to the density of water.

Saponification

Hydrolysis of esters in the presence of strong soluable bases.

Activity of a component of ideal mixture

A dimensionless quantity whose magnitude is: equal to molar concentration in an ideal solution, equal to partial pressure in an ideal gas mixture, and defined as 1 for pure solids or liquids.

Gem-dimethyl group

Two methyl groups of the same carbon atom.

Ostwald Process

A process for the industrial production of nitrogen oxide and nitric acid from ammonia and oxygen.

Charle's Law

At constant pressure the volume occupied by a definite mass of gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature.

Actinides

Elements 89 to 103 (between lawrencium and actinium) on the periodic table. Only the first four have been found in nature in appreciable amounts. The remainder have been produced synthetically.

Half-Cell

Compartment in which the oxidation or reduction half-reaction occurs in a voltaic cell.