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Ions resulting from the formation of coordinate covalent bonds between simple ions and other ions or molecules.

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Specific Rate Constant

An experimentally determined (proportionality) constant, which is different for different reactions and which changes only with temperature, k in the rate-law expression: Rate = k [A] x [B]v.

Dermal toxicity

Adverse health effects resulting from skin exposure ot a substance.

Bond Order

Half the numbers of electrons in bonding orbitals minus half the number of electrons in antibonding orbitals. Bond order gives an indication to the stability of a bond. Also defined as the difference between the number of bonding electrons and antibonding electrons divided by two.

Displacement Reactions

Reactions in which one element displaces another from a compound.

 

Critical Pressure

The pressure required to liquefy a gas (vapor) at its critical temperature.

Heat of Fusion

The amount of heat required to melt one gram of solid at its melting point with no change in temperature. Usually expressed in J/g. The molar heat of fusion is the amount of heat required to melt one mole of a solid at its melting point with no change in temperature and is usually expressed in kJ/mol.

Solubility Product Constant

Equilibrium constant that applies to the dissolution of a slightly soluble compound.

Control Rods

Rods of materials such as cadmium or boron steel that act as neutron obsorbers (not merely moderaters) used in nuclear reactors to control neutron fluxes and therfore rates of fission.

Semiconductor

A substance that does not conduct electricity at low temperatures but does so at higher temperatures.

Alloying

Mixing of metal with other substances (usually other metals) to modify its properties.