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Ions resulting from the formation of coordinate covalent bonds between simple ions and other ions or molecules.

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Amino Acid

Compound containing both an amino and a carboxylic acid group.The --NH2 group.

Contact Process

Industrial process by which sulfur trioxide and sulfuric acid are produced from sulfur dioxide.

Absolute Zero

The zero point on the absolute temperature scale, -273.15°C or 0 K, theoretically, the temperature at which molecular motion ceases. The concept of an absolute zero temperature was first deduced from experiments with gases. When a fixed volume of gas is cooled, its pressure decreases with its temperature. Absolute zero physically possesses quantum mechanical zero-point energy.


Discovered : by Henry Cavendish in 1766.
Isolated in London, UK.
Origin : The name is derived from the Greek ‘hydro genes’, meaning water forming.
Description :A colourless, odourless gas that burns and can form an explosive mixture with air. It is currently manufactured from methane gas, but is also produced by the electrolysis of water and aqueous salts. The gas is used to make such key materials as ammonia, cyclohexane and methanol, which are intermediates in the production of fertilisers, plastics and pharmaceuticals. Some see hydrogen gas as the clean fuel of the future - generated from water and returning to water when it is oxidised. Hydrogen-powered fuel cells are increasingly being seen as pollution-free sources of energy.

Differential Thermometer

A thermometer used for accurate measurement of very small changes in temperature.

Quantum Mechanics

Mathematical method of treating particles on the basis of quantum theory, which assumes that energy (of small particles) is not infinitely divisible.

Fuel Cells

Voltaic cells in which the reactants (usually gases) are supplied continuously.
A voltaic cell that converts the chemical energy of a fuel and an oxidizing agent directly into electriacl energy on a continuous basis.

Electronic Transition

The transfer of an electron from one energy level to another.


A unit of pressure, the pressure that will support a column of mercury 760 mm high at 0 °C.

Standard Electrode Potential

By convention, potential, Eo, of a half-reaction as a reduction relative to the standard hydrogen electrode when all species are present at unit activity.



A device for measuring pressure.

Cloud Chamber

A device for observing the paths of speeding particiles as vapor molecules condense on them to form foglike tracks.

Solubility Product Principle

The solubility product constant expression for a slightly soluble compound is the product of the concentrations of the constituent ions, each raised to the power that corresponds to the number of ions in one formula unit.


A process pertaining to a change in structure of a protein form regular to irregular arrangement of the polypeptide chains.

Standard Molar Enthalphy of Formation

The amount of heat absorbed in the formation of one mole of a substance in a specified state from its elements in their standard states.

Molecular Formula

Formula that indicates the actual number of atoms present in a molecule of a molecular substance.

Flash Point

The temperature at which a liquid will yield enough flamable vapour to ignite. There are various recognized industrial testing methods, therefore the method used must be stated.

Hydration Energy

The energy change accompanying the hydration of a mole of gase and ions.

Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)

A technique for measuring the temperature, direction, and magnitude of thermal transitions in a sample material by heating/cooling and comparing the amount of energy required to maintain its rate of temperature increase or decrease with an inert reference material under similar conditions.


Two peaks or bands of about equal intensity appearing close together on a spectrogram.