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At constant temperature the volume occupied by a definite mass of a gas is inversely proportional to the applied pressure.

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Phase Diagram

Diagram that shows equilibrium temperature-pressure relationships for different phases of a substance.

Supercritical Fluid

A substance at temperature above its critical temperature.

Hydrogen Bond

A fairly strong dipole-dipole interaction (but still considerably weaker than the covalent or ionic bonds) between molecules containing hydrogen directly bonded to a small, highly electronegative atom, such as N, O, or F.

Nodal Plane

A region in which the probability of finding an electron is zero.

 

Phosphoric Acid

H3P04, Colorless liquid or rhombic crystals, decomposes before it will boil. Used mostly in the metal etchant. Used in cleaning operations to remove encrusted surface matter and mineral scale found on metal equipment such as boilers and steam producing equipment. Also used to brighten metals and remove rust.

Carcinogen

A substance capable of causing or producing cancer in mammals.

 

Coulometry

The quantitative application of Faraday's Law to the analysis of materials. The current and time are the usual variables measured.

Equilibrium or Chemical Equilibrium

A state of dynamic balance in which the rates of forward and reverse reactions are equal, the state of a system when neither forward or reverse reaction is thermodynamically favored.

Solution

Homogeneous mixture of two or more substances.

Saturated Hydrocarbons

Hydrocarbons that contain only single bonds. They are also called alkanes or paraffin hydrocarbons.