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At constant temperature the volume occupied by a definite mass of a gas is inversely proportional to the applied pressure.

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Voltaic Cells

Electrochemical cells in which spontaneous chemical reactions produce electricity, also called galvanic cells.

 

Reverse Osmosis

Forcing solvent molecules to flow through a semipermable membrane from a concentated solution into a dilute solution by the application of greater hydrostatic pressure on concentrated side than the osmotic pressure opposing it.

Periodicity

Regular periodic variations of properties of elements with atomic number (and position in the periodic table).

Catalyst

A substance that speeds up a chemical reaction without being consumed itself in the reaction.
A substance that alters (usually increases) the rate at which a reaction occurs.

Supercritical Fluid

A substance at temperature above its critical temperature.

Dipole Moment

The product of the distance separating opposite charges of equal magnitude of the charge, a measure of the polarity of a bond or molecule, a measured dipole moment refers to the dipole moment of an entire molecule.

Thermodynamics

The study of the energy transfers accompanying physical and chemical processes.

Phase Diagram

Diagram that shows equilibrium temperature-pressure relationships for different phases of a substance.

Joule

A unit of energy in the SI system. One joule is 1 kg. m2/s2 which is also 0.2390 calorie.

Donor Atom

A ligand atom whose electrons are shared with a Lewis acid.