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A series of very closely spaced, nearly continuous molecular orbitals that belong to the crystal as a whole.

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  • What are Compound Microscopes?

    Most of the microscopes used today are compound. A compound microscope features two or more lenses. A hollow cylinder called the tube connects the two lenses. The top lens, the one people look through, is called the eyepiece. The bottom lens is known as the objective lens. Below the two lenses is...

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    One of the most interesting and obvious chemical experiments is the experiment on the interaction of copper sulfate and calcium carbonate. The latter is contained in the shell of a simple egg, but copper sulphate should be searched in a chemical reagent store. This experience is simple, but...

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    Chemistry can teach us about the composition of celestial bodies and determine their age.

  • Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...

  • Use of diamonds

    Diamond is a crystalline modification of pure carbon formed in the deep interior of the Earth, in the upper mantle at depths of more than 80-100 kilometers, at exceptionally high pressure and temperature. It is the most precious stone, the hardest and most wear-resistant mineral, the most...



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Heat of Crystallization

The amount of heat that must be removed from one gram of a liquid at its freezing point to freeze it with no change in temperature.

Integrated Rate Equation

An equation giving the concentration of a reactant remaining after a specified time, has different mathematical form for different orders of reactants.

Octane Number

A number that indicates how smoothly a gasoline burns.

Cathode Ray Tube

Closed glass tube containing a gas under low pressure, with electrodes near the ends and a luminescent screen at the end near the positive electrode, produces cathode rays when high voltage is applied.

Condensed Phases

The liquid and solid phases, phases in which particles interact strongly.

Dermal toxicity

Adverse health effects resulting from skin exposure ot a substance.

Radiation

High energy particles or rays emitted during the nuclear decay processes.

ytterbia

Ytterbia is a colorless compound, Yb2O3, used in certain alloys and ceramics. Also known as ytterbium oxide.

Designated area

An area that may be used for work with carcinogens, reproductive toxins, or substances that have a high degree of acute toxicity. A designated area may be the entire laboratory, an area of a laboratory, or a device such as a laboratory hood.

Water Equivalent

The amount of water that would absorb the same amount of heat as the calorimeter per degree temperature increase.