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The increase in the entropy of a substance as it goes from a perfectly ordered crystalline form at 0 °K (where its entropy is zero) to the temperature in question.

Entropy is a measure of the “dilution” of thermal energy.

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Hydration Energy

The energy change accompanying the hydration of a mole of gase and ions.

Saccharide

An organic compound containing a sugar or sugars.

Melting Point

The temperature at which liquid and solid coexist in equilibrium, also the freezing point.

Spectrum

Display of component wavelengths (colours) of electromagnetic radiation.

Lewis Base

Any species that can make available a share in an electron pair.

Pairing

A favourable interaction of two electrons with opposite m , values in the same orbital.

Acidic Salt

A salt containing an ionizable hydrogen atom. Acidic salt does not necessarily produce acidic solutions.

xylene

Any of three oily, colorless, water-insoluble, flammable, toxic, isomeric liquids, C8H10, of the benzene series, obtained mostly from coal tar: used chiefly in the manufacture of dyes.

Electrode Potentials

Potentials, E, of half-reactions as reductions versus the standard hydrogen electrode.

Mass Number

The sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons in an atom, an integer.