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The increase in the entropy of a substance as it goes from a perfectly ordered crystalline form at 0 °K (where its entropy is zero) to the temperature in question.

Entropy is a measure of the “dilution” of thermal energy.

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Flammable

A liquid as defined by NFPD and DOT as having a flash point below 37.8°C (100°F).

Shielding Effect

Electrons in filled sets of s , p orbitals between the nucleus and outer shell electrons shield the outer shell electrons somewhat from the effect of protons in the nucleus, also called screening effect.

Saccharide

An organic compound containing a sugar or sugars.

Spectrum

Display of component wavelengths (colours) of electromagnetic radiation.

Salinometer

An instrument for measuring the amount of salt in a solution. Also,"salimeter, salometer."

Partial Pressure

The pressure exerted by one gas in a mixture of gases.

Alkaline Battery

A dry cell in which the electrolyte contains KOH.

Bonding Pair

Pair of electrons involved in a covalent bond.

Reactants

Substances consumed in a chemical reaction.

Heat of Solution

The amount of heat absorbed in the formation of solution that contains one mole of solute, the value is positive if heat is absorbed (endothermic) and negative if heat is released (exothermic).