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The zero point on the absolute temperature scale, -273.15°C or 0 K, theoretically, the temperature at which molecular motion ceases. The concept of an absolute zero temperature was first deduced from experiments with gases. When a fixed volume of gas is cooled, its pressure decreases with its temperature. Absolute zero physically possesses quantum mechanical zero-point energy.

Absolute zero is equivalent to 0 °R on the Rankine scale and -459.67° on the Fahrenheit scale.

Absolute zero can't be reached through experiments, although it can be closely approached. Researchers have come close, but reaching absolute zero is not possible. The record for the coldest temperature of 0.45nK (billionths of a Kelvin) was recorded by MIT researchers in 2003. According to the third law of thermodynamics the entropy of a pure crystal is zero at absolute zero temperature.

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Evaporation Rate

The rate at which a particular substance will vapourize (evaporate) when compared to the rate of a known substance such as ethyl ether. This term is especially useful for health and fire-hazard considerations.

Electromagnetic Radiation

Energy that is propagated by means of electric and magnetic fields that oscillate in directions perpendicular to the direction of travel of the energy.


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Donor Atom

A ligand atom whose electrons are shared with a Lewis acid.

Haber Process

A process for the catalyzed industrial production of ammonia from N2 and H2 at high temperature and pressure.


Colloidal suspension of a gas in a liquid.

Conjugated Double Bonds

Double bonds that are separated from each other by one single bond -C=C-C=C-.

How is colored crystal made?

However, not everyone knows that in addition to the traditional transparent, there is still an unusually beautiful and spectacular colored crystal, which is obtained through the addition of various metal oxides into the glass. They give the crystal unusually noble shades of red, purple, blue, green and pink colors.

Percentage Ionization

The percentage of the weak electrolyte that ionizes in a solution of given concentration.

Free Energy Change

The indicator of spontaneity of a process at constnt T and P. If delta-G is negative, the process is spontaneous.