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The zero point on the absolute temperature scale, -273.15°C or 0 K, theoretically, the temperature at which molecular motion ceases. The concept of an absolute zero temperature was first deduced from experiments with gases. When a fixed volume of gas is cooled, its pressure decreases with its temperature. Absolute zero physically possesses quantum mechanical zero-point energy.

Absolute zero is equivalent to 0 °R on the Rankine scale and -459.67° on the Fahrenheit scale.

Absolute zero can't be reached through experiments, although it can be closely approached. Researchers have come close, but reaching absolute zero is not possible. The record for the coldest temperature of 0.45nK (billionths of a Kelvin) was recorded by MIT researchers in 2003. According to the third law of thermodynamics the entropy of a pure crystal is zero at absolute zero temperature.

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Molecular Weight

The mass of one molecule of a nonionic substance in atomic mass units.

Evaporation Rate

The rate at which a particular substance will vapourize (evaporate) when compared to the rate of a known substance such as ethyl ether. This term is especially useful for health and fire-hazard considerations.

Specific Heat

The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of substance one degree Celsius.

Metallic Conduction

Conduction of electrical current through a metal or along a metallic surface.

Equivalent Weight

An oxidizing or reducing agent, who's mass gains (oxidizing agents) or loses (reducing agents) 6.022 x 1023 electrons in a redox reaction.
The mass of an acid or base that furnishes or reacts with 6.022 x 1023 H3O+ or OH- ions.

Ideal Gas

A hypothetical gas that obeys exactly all postulates of the kinetic-molecular theory.

 

Crystal Lattice

A pattern of arrangement of particles in a crystal.

Dosimeter

A small, calibrated electroscope worn by laboratory personnel and designated to detect and measure incident ionizing radiation or chemical exposure.

Homogeneous Equilibria

Equilibria involving only one species in a single phase. For example, all gases, all liquids or all solids.

Formula

Combination of symbols that indicates the chemical composition of a substance.