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The zero point on the absolute temperature scale, -273.15°C or 0 K, theoretically, the temperature at which molecular motion ceases. The concept of an absolute zero temperature was first deduced from experiments with gases. When a fixed volume of gas is cooled, its pressure decreases with its temperature. Absolute zero physically possesses quantum mechanical zero-point energy.

Absolute zero is equivalent to 0 °R on the Rankine scale and -459.67° on the Fahrenheit scale.

Absolute zero can't be reached through experiments, although it can be closely approached. Researchers have come close, but reaching absolute zero is not possible. The record for the coldest temperature of 0.45nK (billionths of a Kelvin) was recorded by MIT researchers in 2003. According to the third law of thermodynamics the entropy of a pure crystal is zero at absolute zero temperature.

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Substance

Any kind of matter all specimens of which have the same chemical composition and physical properties.

 

Semipermable Membrane

A thin partition between two solutions through which certain molecules can pass but others cannot.

High Spin Complex

Crystal field designation for an outer orbital complex, all t2g and eg orbitals are singly occupied before any pairing occurs.

Ion Product for Water

Equilibrium constant for the ionization of water, Kw = [H3O+][OH-] =1.00 x 10-14 at 25 °C.

Molecular Geometry

The arrangement of atoms (not lone pairs of electrons) around a central atom of a molecule or polyatomic ion.

Dilution

Process of reducing the concentration of a solute in solution, usually simply by mixing with more solvent.

Entropy

A thermodynamic state or property that measures the degree of disorder or randomness of a system.

Boron Hydrides

Binary compounds of boron and hydrogen.

Crystal Field Stabilization Energy

A measure of the net energy of stabilization gained by a metal ion's nonbonding d electrons as a result of complex formation.

DP number

The degree of polymerization, the average number of monomer units per polymer unit.