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The zero point on the absolute temperature scale, -273.15°C or 0 K, theoretically, the temperature at which molecular motion ceases. The concept of an absolute zero temperature was first deduced from experiments with gases. When a fixed volume of gas is cooled, its pressure decreases with its temperature. Absolute zero physically possesses quantum mechanical zero-point energy.

Absolute zero is equivalent to 0 °R on the Rankine scale and -459.67° on the Fahrenheit scale.

Absolute zero can't be reached through experiments, although it can be closely approached. Researchers have come close, but reaching absolute zero is not possible. The record for the coldest temperature of 0.45nK (billionths of a Kelvin) was recorded by MIT researchers in 2003. According to the third law of thermodynamics the entropy of a pure crystal is zero at absolute zero temperature.

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Method by which hydrophobic (water-repelling) particles of an ore are separated from hydrophilic (water-attracting) particles of a metallurgical pretreatment process.

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An algebraic increase in the oxidation number, may correspond to a loss of electrons.

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There is no detectable change in the quantity of matter during an ordinary chemical reaction.

Ionic Compounds

Compounds containing predominantly ionic bonding.

Partial Pressure

The pressure exerted by one gas in a mixture of gases.

Alcohol

Hydrocarbon derivative containing an --OH group attached to a carbon atom not in an aromatic ring. Alcohols are a class of organic compounds containing the hydroxyl group, OH, attached to a carbon atom.

ytterbia

Ytterbia is a colorless compound, Yb2O3, used in certain alloys and ceramics. Also known as ytterbium oxide.

Equilibrium or Chemical Equilibrium

A state of dynamic balance in which the rates of forward and reverse reactions are equal, the state of a system when neither forward or reverse reaction is thermodynamically favored.

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A measure of the amount of matter in an object. Mass is usually measured in grams or kilograms.

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The temperature at which a liquid will yield enough flamable vapour to ignite. There are various recognized industrial testing methods, therefore the method used must be stated.