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The zero point on the absolute temperature scale, -273.15°C or 0 K, theoretically, the temperature at which molecular motion ceases. The concept of an absolute zero temperature was first deduced from experiments with gases. When a fixed volume of gas is cooled, its pressure decreases with its temperature. Absolute zero physically possesses quantum mechanical zero-point energy.

Absolute zero is equivalent to 0 °R on the Rankine scale and -459.67° on the Fahrenheit scale.

Absolute zero can't be reached through experiments, although it can be closely approached. Researchers have come close, but reaching absolute zero is not possible. The record for the coldest temperature of 0.45nK (billionths of a Kelvin) was recorded by MIT researchers in 2003. According to the third law of thermodynamics the entropy of a pure crystal is zero at absolute zero temperature.

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Gas of rotten eggs

If you happen to break a rotten egg, then you know the smell of hydrogen sulfide, because the stench of the spoiled egg depends on of its presence in rotting protein substances.

Disproportionation Reactions

Redox reactions in which the oxidizing agent and the reducing agent are the same species.

Line Spectrum

An atomic emission or absorption spectrum.

Heterogeneous Equilibria

Equilibria involving species in more than one phase.

Neutron

A neutral subatomic particle having a mass of 1.0087 amu.

Reaction Ratio

The relative amounts of reactants and products involved in a reaction, maybe the ratio of moles. millimoles, or masses.

 

Levorotatory

Refers to an optically active substance that rotates the plane of plane polarized light counterclockwise, also called levo.

Double Salt

Solid consisting of two co-crystallized salts.

 

Endothermic

Describes processes that absorb heat energy.

Boiling Point Elevation

The increase in the boiling point of a solvent caused by the dissolution of a nonvolatile solute.