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A reaction in which the numbers of moles of reactants shown in the balanced equation, all in their standard states, are completely converted to the numbers of moles of products shown in the balanced equation, also sall at their standard state.

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Extrapolate

To estimate the value of a result outside the range of a series of known values. Technique used in standard additions calibration procedure.

ytterbium

A rare metallic element found in gadolinite and forming compounds resembling those of yttrium. Symbol: Yb, at. wt.: 173.04, at. no.: 70, sp. gr.: 6.96. Cf."rare-earth element."

 

Lanthanide Contraction

A decrease in the radii of the elements following the lanthanides compared to what would be expected if there were no f-transition metals.

Electron Configuration

Specific distribution of electrons in atomic orbitals of atoms or ions.

Integrated Rate Equation

An equation giving the concentration of a reactant remaining after a specified time, has different mathematical form for different orders of reactants.

Chemical Bonds

The attractive forces that hold atoms together in elements or compounds.

Formula Unit

The smallest repeating unit of a substance. The molecule for nonionic substances

Double Bond

Covalent bond resulting from the sharing of four electrons (two pairs) between two atoms.

Mass Spectrometer

An instrument that measures the charge-to-mass ratio of charged particles.

Absolute Entropy (of a substance)

The increase in the entropy of a substance as it goes from a perfectly ordered crystalline form at 0 °K (where its entropy is zero) to the temperature in question.

Entropy is a measure of the “dilution” of thermal energy.