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Double bonds that are separated from each other by one single bond -C=C-C=C-.

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Hydrometer

A device used to measure the densities of liquids and solutions.

Carbanion

An organic ion carrying a negative charge on a carbon atom.

Osmotic Pressure

The hydrostatic pressure produced on the surface of a semipermable membrane by osmosis.

Critical Pressure

The pressure required to liquefy a gas (vapor) at its critical temperature.

xylic acid

Any of six colorless, crystalline, isomeric acids having the formula C9H10O2, derived from xylene.

Endothermic

Describes processes that absorb heat energy.

Activity of a component of ideal mixture

A dimensionless quantity whose magnitude is: equal to molar concentration in an ideal solution, equal to partial pressure in an ideal gas mixture, and defined as 1 for pure solids or liquids.

Octet Rule

Many representative elements attain at least a share of eight electrons in their valence shells when they form molecular or ionic compounds, there are some limitations.

Single Bond

Covalent bond resulting from the sharing of two electrons (one pair) between two atoms.

Viscosity

Resistance offered by the molecules of a liquid to flow is termed as viscosity.