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Double bonds that are separated from each other by one single bond -C=C-C=C-.

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Third Law of Thermodynamics

The entropy of a hypothetical pure, perfect, crystalline sustance at absolute zero temperature is zero.

Semipermable Membrane

A thin partition between two solutions through which certain molecules can pass but others cannot.

Cathode Ray Tube

Closed glass tube containing a gas under low pressure, with electrodes near the ends and a luminescent screen at the end near the positive electrode, produces cathode rays when high voltage is applied.

Bond Order

Half the numbers of electrons in bonding orbitals minus half the number of electrons in antibonding orbitals. Bond order gives an indication to the stability of a bond. Also defined as the difference between the number of bonding electrons and antibonding electrons divided by two.

Geometrical Isomers

Compounds with different arrangements of groups on either side of a bond with restricted rotation, such as a double bond or a single bond in a ring, for example cis-trans isomers of certain alkenes. Stereoisomers that are not mirror images of each other, also known as position isomers.

Adhesive Forces

Forces of attraction between a liquid and another surface.

Thermal Cracking

Decomposition by heating a substance in the presence of a catalyst and in the absence of air.

 

Handmade crystal glass as a work of art

In order for the colored crystal to open in all its beauty and sparkle with every face natural light is required. Handmade crystal glass has specific tactile and aesthetic properties - it is pleasant to touch, it seems to radiate heat. To appreciate the quality and beauty of such things, of course, it is not enough to look at the picture.

Dilution

Process of reducing the concentration of a solute in solution, usually simply by mixing with more solvent.

Canal Ray

Stream of positively charged particles (cations) that moves toward the negative electrode in cathode ray tubes, observed to pass through canals in the negative electrode.