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Double bonds that are separated from each other by one single bond -C=C-C=C-.

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Matter

Anything that has mass and occupies space.

Heat Capacity

The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a body (of any mass) one degree Celsius.

Supersaturated Solution

A solution that contains a higher than saturation concentration of solute, slight disturbance or seeding causes crystallization of excess solute.

Condensation

Liquefaction of vapor.

Effective Nuclear Charge

The nuclear charge experienced by the outermost electrons of an atom, the actual nuclear charge minus the effects of shielding due to inner-shell electrons.
Example: Set of dx2-y2 and dz2 orbitals, those d orbitals within a set with lobes directed along the x-, y-, and z-axes.

Crystal Lattice Energy

Amount of energy that holds a crystal together, the energy change when a mole of solid is formed from its constituent molecules or ions (for ionic compounds) in their gaseous state.

Haber Process

A process for the catalyzed industrial production of ammonia from N2 and H2 at high temperature and pressure.

Electronic Transition

The transfer of an electron from one energy level to another.

Thermodynamics

The study of the energy transfers accompanying physical and chemical processes.

Peroxide

A compound containing oxygen in the -1 oxidation state. Metal peroxides contain the peroxide ion, O22