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Double bonds that are separated from each other by one single bond -C=C-C=C-.

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Molecular Orbital Theory

A theory of chemical bonding based upon the postulated existence of molecular orbitals.

Mole Fraction

The number of moles of a component of a mixture divided by the total number of moles in the mixture.


S Orbital

A spherically symmetrical atomic orbital, one per energy level.

Oxidation Numbers

Arbitrary numbers that can be used as mechanical aids in writing formulas and balancing equations, for single- atom ions they correspond to the charge on the ion, more electronegative atoms are assigned negative oxidation numbers (also called Oxidation states).

Frasch Process

Method by which elemental sulfur is mined or extracted. Sulfur is melted with superheated water (at 170°C under high pressure) and forced to the surface of the earth as a slurry.



The heat content of a specific amount of substance, defined as E= PV.

Theoretical Yield

Maximum amount of a specified product that could be obtained from specified amounts of reactants, assuming complete consumption of limiting reactant according to only one reaction and complete recovery of product.

Condensed Phases

The liquid and solid phases, phases in which particles interact strongly.

Nonpolar Bond

Covalent bond in which electron density is symmetrically distributed.

Electronic Transition

The transfer of an electron from one energy level to another.