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Group of atoms remaining after a hydrogen atom is removed from the aromatic system.

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Turning iron nail into copper nail

This simple chemical experiment shows the so-called process of copper plating of metal products. Copper has the ability to deposit on a metal surface.

Coulomb

Unit of electrical charge.

Solute

The dispersed (dissolved) phase of a solution.

Halogens

Group VIIA elements: F, Cl, Br, I

Electron Configuration

Specific distribution of electrons in atomic orbitals of atoms or ions.

Molecular Equation

Equation for a chemical reaction in which all formulas are written as if all substances existed as molecules, only complete formulas are used.

Unsaturated Hydrocarbons

Hydrocarbons that contain double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.

Faraday

One faraday of electricity corresponds to the charge on 6.022 x 1023 electrons, or 96,487.301 coulombs.

Absolute Zero

The zero point on the absolute temperature scale, -273.15°C or 0 K, theoretically, the temperature at which molecular motion ceases. The concept of an absolute zero temperature was first deduced from experiments with gases. When a fixed volume of gas is cooled, its pressure decreases with its temperature. Absolute zero physically possesses quantum mechanical zero-point energy.

Geiger counter

A gas filled tube which discharges electriaclly when ionizing radiation passes through it.