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A unit of pressure, the pressure that will support a column of mercury 760 mm high at 0 °C.

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    In this paper I describe (theoretically) the method(s) of automated protein discovery and synthesis.

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    Probably, every person wants to know, why over time the copper turns green and becomes bloomed. This is easy to explain: that film is called patina.

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    Calibration standards, performance audits, and the FDA's never-ending safety, labeling, and inspection requirements are just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to dealing with the increasingly stringent quality control standards of the beverage industry. As these quality standards become...

  • Varieties of garnet minerals

    The most famous type of garnet stone is pyrope (flaming). This is the "oldest of garnets", with a dense red color, similar to the grain of an edible garnet. Pyrope has a variety called rhodolite - a stone of dense pink or pink-purple color, which sometimes has the alexandrite effect and is used in...

  • The most expensive metal in the world

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Graham's Law

The rates of effusion of gases are inversely proportional to the square roots of their molecular weights or densities.

Born-Haber Cycle

A series of reactions (and accompanying enthalpy changes) which, when summed, represents the hypothetical one-step reaction by which elements in their standard states are converted into crystals of ionic compounds (and the accompanying enthalpy changes.)

DP number

The degree of polymerization, the average number of monomer units per polymer unit.

Thermal Cracking

Decomposition by heating a substance in the presence of a catalyst and in the absence of air.


Hydrate Isomers

Isomers of crystalline complexes that differ in whether water is present inside or outside the coordination sphere.


An isotope of hydrogen whose atoms are twice as massive as ordinary hydrogen,deuterion atoms contain both a proton and a neutron in the nucleus.

Raoult's Law

The vapor pressure of a solvent in an ideal solution decreases as its mole fraction decreases.

Bond Order

Half the numbers of electrons in bonding orbitals minus half the number of electrons in antibonding orbitals. Bond order gives an indication to the stability of a bond. Also defined as the difference between the number of bonding electrons and antibonding electrons divided by two.


A heterogeneous mixture in which solute-like particles settle out of solvent-like phase some time after their introduction.

Kinetic-molecular Theory

A theory, that attempts to explain macroscopic observations on gases in microscopic observations on gases in microscopic observations on gases in microscopic or molecular terms.