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Benzene and its derivatives.

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Osmotic Pressure

The hydrostatic pressure produced on the surface of a semipermable membrane by osmosis.

Central Atom

An atom in a molecule or polyatomic ion that is bonded to more than one other atom.

Supersaturated Solution

A solution that contains a higher than saturation concentration of solute, slight disturbance or seeding causes crystallization of excess solute.

Voltaic Cells

Electrochemical cells in which spontaneous chemical reactions produce electricity, also called galvanic cells.

 

History of fireworks

There is an assumption that the history of fireworks started in China, about 2000 years ago. It is possible that the Chinese accidentally discovered explosions by burning bamboo canes.

Cyclotron

A device for accelerating charged particles along a spiral path.

Lone Pair

Pair of electrons residing on one atom and not shared by other atoms, unshared pair.

Donor Atom

A ligand atom whose electrons are shared with a Lewis acid.

Addition Reaction

A reaction in which two atoms or groups of atoms are added to a molecule, one on each side of a double or triple bond. Types of addition reaction include electrophilic, nucleophilic (polar) and free radical addition (non-polar).

Pauli Exclusion Principle

No two electrons in the same atom may have identical sets of four quantum numbers.