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Mixing of metal with other substances (usually other metals) to modify its properties.

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Weak Field Ligand

A Ligand that exerts a weak crystal or ligand field and ge- nerally forms high spin complexes with metals.

Electrophile

Positively charged or electron-deficient.

Effective Nuclear Charge

The nuclear charge experienced by the outermost electrons of an atom, the actual nuclear charge minus the effects of shielding due to inner-shell electrons.
Example: Set of dx2-y2 and dz2 orbitals, those d orbitals within a set with lobes directed along the x-, y-, and z-axes.

Ore

A natural deposit containing a mineral of an element to be extracted.

Half-Cell

Compartment in which the oxidation or reduction half-reaction occurs in a voltaic cell.

Dilution

Process of reducing the concentration of a solute in solution, usually simply by mixing with more solvent.

Atomic Number


Integral number of protons in the nucleus, defines the identity of element.
 

Acetic Acid

CA3COOH, clear, colorless liquid, pungent odor. Boiling point 140C, flash point 54C (closed cup), autoignition temperature 38OC.

Dynamic Equilibrium

An equilibrium in which processes occur continuously, with no net change. When two (or more) processes occur at the same rate so that no net change occurs.

Lone Pair

Pair of electrons residing on one atom and not shared by other atoms, unshared pair.