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Mixing of metal with other substances (usually other metals) to modify its properties.

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Law of Combining Volumes (Gay-Lussac's Law)

At constant temperature and pressure, the volumes of reacting gases (and any gaseous products) can be expressed as ratios of small whole numbers.

 

Polarization

The buildup of a product of oxidation or a reduction of an electrode, preventing further reaction.

Entropy

A thermodynamic state or property that measures the degree of disorder or randomness of a system.

Fuel Cells

Voltaic cells in which the reactants (usually gases) are supplied continuously.
A voltaic cell that converts the chemical energy of a fuel and an oxidizing agent directly into electriacl energy on a continuous basis.

Nonpolar Bond

Covalent bond in which electron density is symmetrically distributed.

Eutrophication

The undesirable overgrowth of vegetation caused by high concentrates of plant nutrients in bodies of water.

Electroplating

Plating a metal onto a (cathodic) surface by electrolysis.

Mass Deficiency

The amount of matter that would be converted into energy if an atom were formed from constituent particles.

Aufbau ('building up') Principle

Describes the order in which electrons fill orbitals in atoms.

Free Radical

A highly reactive chemical species carrying no charge and having a single unpaired electron in an orbital.